Grammatical accuracy, and conciseness will be check
- Explain Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory and how it is different from Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory.
- Describe the 4 stages of Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory from Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, and Formal Operational.
What is cognitive development? Changes in thinking, includes reasoning, memory & problem solvingo Know Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development, including hallmarks of each stage (e.g., what is object permanence, etc.).
1.Sensory motor – infants understand the world in terms of their senses and effects of their actions, everything goes in their mouth, no object permanence
2.Preoperational – object permanence present, egocentric, lack conservation, irreversibility, animism
3.Concrete operations – children can think logically, no longer egocentric or animism, can solve conservation problems, no abstract reasoning
4.Formal operations – able to reason logically with abstract propositions, understand that people can think one thing but report something different o What are schemas? Assimilation? Accommodation? What are some criticisms or limitations of Piaget’s theory? Schemas – structures of frameworks that help us to organize and interpret our experiences Assimilation – try to interpret or “fit new info in” to an existing schema Accommodation – adjust schemas to fit particulars of new experiences
- Describe the 4 systems- micro, meso, exo, macro, chrono in Urie Brofenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory and give examples of each of the 4 systems.
- Describe the concepts of the zone of proximal development and scaffolding in Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory and give an example of zone of proximal development and scaffolding for a particular individual.
- Explain the nature/nurture debate.
- Explain the process of conception.
- Describe hereditary influences of developmental: chromosomes, genes, meiosis, mitosis, and genotype.
- Explain factors that influence individual’s phenotypes.
- Describe the prenatal stages: germinal, embryonic, and fetal.
- Describe 2 environmental influences on prenatal development.
- Describe what happens in the first, second, and third stage of child birth.
- Describe cephalocaudal and proximodistal development.
illigan (2014) highlights the situational complexity of gender and the rural-urban divide. Milligan analyses dominant discourses of rurality and identifies that rurality is associated with isolation, and communities are viewed as backwards and traditional. Milligan states that western society views rurality as idyllic and community-focused which are predominantly inhabited by the white middle-class. Milligan considers that it is rurality which presents unique challenges to individuals in those communities yet due to globalisation, the focus has shifted to analysing urban environments. This has resulted in little policy or research being conducted in rural environments. Milligan views rurality as an active agent which is central to the lived experiences of individuals. Milligan states that previous research into gender inequality typically focuses on using quantified data such as statistic whereas Milligan has chosen to use a variety of qualitative research methods as she suggests that girls face multiple challenges which are not necessarily considered by statistics. Milligan used many research methods which would produce qualitative data. Staff were used in semi-structured interviews, cameras and diaries were given to older students and younger students participated in essay-writing and producing posters. Milligan’s research highlighted that rural contexts in Kenya presented many challenges for girls and that education is often too isolated from the wider social context that students come from. Challenges included the need for girls to fulfil gender stereotypes such as having to do chores after school and also the issues of ‘patronage sexuality’ (p. 470). This refers to girls participating in sexual activity for money or essential items alongside typically rural issues such as teenage pregnancy >GET ANSWER