How is “human rights” defined by the EU? How is the concept applied externally?
rew; a member of the crew could earn more than a year’s wages from one captured vessel. The zest the crew would fight with was in large part due to the monetary reward affiliated with victory. Whatever the individual motivation, the Royal Navy could not be matched in its aggression. Dominating the battle of Trafalgar was no exception. Regardless of tactics, the fervour of the attack, the passion and the morale with which the British executed the assault, evoked a desperation in the French which arguably “won them the battle before a cannon was fired.” Aggression alone was not sufficient. Skilled seamanship was also necessary. Skill of British commanding officers played a crucial role in the Battle of Trafalgar. Officers were tasked with directing the crew in most actions they performed. Superior officers allowed for superior tactics and manoeuvres. Without officers, ships of the line would cease to function, let alone fight an enemy. The better the officers, the better the ship. To ensure the best possible commanding officers, the Royal Navy practiced meritocracy. Essentially, the only way to progress through the ranks of the Royal Navy was through excellence and recognition. Contrary to the British army, (and the French and Spanish navies for that matter) it was forbidden in the Royal Navy for noble families to purchase a commission. Allen Lane stresses that “The officers of the Royal Navy were both professional and veterans of war”. Even British admirals came from the middle class including both Nelson, and Collingwood. Aspiring officers would have to pass a lieutenant’s exam in front of a board of senior captains. The French and the Spanish navies did not follow the British example. Being an officer was associated with status and class, only available to rich nobility, independent of experience. Villeneuve and the Spanish Admiral Gravina both bought positions in their respective navies. Furthermore, Spain and France even allowed the purchaseof petty officer commissions. These individuals that were more directly involved with operating the ship to be bought. As a result, the French and the Spanish had less capable officers, leading to a generally poorer quality fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar compared to the British. Vargas Ponce, A Spanish naval historian of the time confirmed that “Gravina had risen to power through royal favours and did not have the steadfastness” necessary for a man of his rank. Furthermore, Vargas Ponce suggests that w>GET ANSWER