A researcher wonders how well the sense of smell functions during sleep. In general, we know that our sensory systems operate at a higher threshold during sleep. That is, a more intense stimulus is required to elicit a response during sleep than during wakefulness. Furthermore, we are less responsive during some stages of sleep than during others. Experiments using sounds suggest that we are less responsive during stages 3 and 4 sleep (deep sleep) than during stages 1, 2, or REM sleep (lighter sleep). Thus, the 4 – 16 researcher predicts that research participants will be less responsive to odors during stages 3 and 4 sleep than during the other stages of sleep. The researcher devises a system for delivering odors while college students sleep in the laboratory. Peppermint fragrance is delivered at specific times through a modified oxygen mask that the students wear while they sleep. Electrodes are attached to each student’s scalp, face, and chin to determine sleep staging. Electrodes are also attached to each student’s chest to record heart rate. A change in heart rate following presentation of the odor is used to indicate that the participant detected the odor.
Read the scenario above and answer the following questions:
What is the research hypothesis?
What is the independent variable?
Is the independent variable a qualitative variable or a quantitative variable? Explain.
Why might the researchers want to use multiple dependent variables?
Describe one limitation of this study.
duced pollution in water, “Overall, more than 60 percent of the nation’s waters meet the Clean Water Act fishable and swimmable goal.” While back in 1972 when this act was implemented only a third were considered to be fit for these activities. The EPA has played a big role in achieving clean water. Their implementing of this policy makes it possible for the clean water act to work and people obeying the laws it sets. I believe this policy is very necessary due to the fact that water is needed in all living things and polluting it is bad for environment and living organism around it. This Act has made big differences since it has gone into effect. Cleaning up the waters has had a great impact on the environment and has made it easy for other acts that consider water. For example, Safe Drinking Water Act is also an enforced by EPA ensuring the water that is for public use to be clean and safe for them to drink. But they also protect the source of the water, rivers, lakes, and other water sources. The clean water act ensures that those sources are safe and protected from pollution. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, infringes upon the unlawful values of manufactures, industries, and corporations who benefit from discarding harmful chemicals into non-navigable waters and landfill due to the inexpensive cost. According to the Natural Resource Defense Council, most Americans do have access to safe drinking water, however we are not immune to harmful chemicals such as copper, arsenic, and lead. As a matter of fact, these chemicals have been found across the entire United States. Corporate greed, is not the only contributing factor to water pollution in the United States. Littering is a societal norm, but becoming less prevalent. Every time a person chooses to litter or not recycle, these products end up in landfills, which represent a major portion of today’s water pollution. The trade off of ceasing these type of behavior has substantial benefits to the environment and our overall ecosystem. In this scenario the positives heavily outweigh the so called negatives. How was this policy justified to the public? The positive impact that the public experienced from this policy, made the decision overly justifiable. The federal government holds what is referred to as rights-based justification. This obligates the federal government to intervene when citizens natural rights are being violated. Controlling pollution levels in order to provide a safe environment and drinking water falls underneath this jurisdiction. 3.) After reading this article, I was left with a few questions. I was curious to as of what kind of pollution still existed after this policy was passed and how corporations go about obtaining a permit to lawfully discard materials into navigable waters. These questions lead me to the Safe Water Drinking Foundation, the NRDC, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Here I found information on several types of water pollution such as discarding chemical waste in non-navigable waters such as rivers, and small pounds. This is an unfortunate loophole found by those with the knowledge that their waste is harmful and are unable to attain a dumping permit. Land dumping is also a comm>GET ANSWER