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effects and increases secondary brain damage. Hs-CRP due to the close relationship with inflammation and tissue damage is considered as clinical infection marker and acute inflammatory response (47). Similar to other studies (29, 46, 48), supplementation with taurine reduced serum levels of hs-CRP. However, this difference between the two groups was not significant but further reduction of hs-CRP in taurine group shows faster control of inflammation resulted from brain traumatic injury. It has been indicated that longer duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU support for critically-ill patients with sepsis is related to low levels of plasma taurine (49). On the other hand, in previous studies, low plasma taurine levels are reported in patients with trauma (22-25). The most commonly used clinical tool for severity of neurological injury in adults is Glasgow Coma Scale (50) that is due to it’s inter-observer reliability and predictive validity (51). In our study, GCS in the taurine group increased significantly that shows improvement of clinical condition. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHEII) Score is a tool to measure disease severity in patients hospitalized in ICU (52). High APACHEII score is related to the subsequent risk of many common diseases and hospital mortalities (53, 54). In our study, APACHEII score in the taurine group reduced significantly. SOFA score is an objective and simple score that allows the estimation of both number and severity of organ dysfucntion and during the first days of hospitalization in ICU, is a suitable prognostic index (55). In the present study, supplementation with taurine could not reduce this score in the taurine group significantly. The length of ICU stay and dependence on ventilator in the taurine group were not significantly lower than the control group. On the other hand, two patients in the taurine group (9.1%) and six patients in the control group (27.3%) had thirty-day mortality and the percentage of mortality in the control group was almost similar to the study by Kasmaei et al. (56). Although taurine reduced mortality rate, no significant difference was observed between the two groups (p = 0.240). This non-significance can be due to small sample size and in this regard, the clinical importance of this reduction should not be ignored. For this purpose, NNT was estimated for thirty-day mortality. The Number Needed to Treat (NNT) includes the number of patients who should be treated to prevent a bad outcome. NNT estimated from 1/Absolute Risk Reduction. In the present study, NNT is equal to 6, meaning that of every 6 patients who received taurine, 1 death was prevented. Nutrition Risk in Critically ill (NUTRIC) score is the first nutrition risk instrument that is specifically validated for patients in ICU and can identify patients under malnutrition risk (57). In this scoring system, 0-5 show low nutrition risk and 6-10 show high nutrition risk. Those who are in the high risk group, can take more advantage of nutrition supports (58). Although in this study improvement of nutrition risk in the taurine group was higher, no significant>GET ANSWER