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is finding corroborates with the results obtained from the study in which residual plasma concentration of antimalarials was detected prior to the treatment (Hodel et al. 2009). PYR is usually given at a lower dose of 1.25 mg/kg in combination with SDX and its half-life is approximately 4 days; shorter than that of SDX which has a half-life of 7.2 days (Hodel et al. 2009; Weidekamm et al.1982 ). In present study, the mean concentration obtained for SDX was comparatively higher than the reported study; but there was no conspicuous difference in the concentration range of the residual antimalarials (Hodel et al. 2009). There are various factors which might be responsible for such differences the in mean concentration of residual antimalarials: (1) Differences in the Samples (dried blood spots) extraction procedure (2) Instrumentation technique used i.e. they have used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry which is highly sensitive as compared to HPLC used in the present study. Based on the day 0 and day 7 SDX concentration (C0 and C7), and assuming that the patients with residual SDX in their blood had taken a single dose of SDX according to their body weight, we can infer by using back estimation method that these patients must have taken SP approximately within one month (29 mean days) prior to inclusion in our study. Furthermore, it is also possible that patients might have taken a sub-therapeutic dose or counterfeit form of SP more recently (Basco et al. 2004). Chloroquine (CQ) Although, CQ has been withdrawn to be treatment for Pv infection (Valecha et al; 2009 ) still first line treatment for the Pv case across the country; it was detected in the blood of 27 (9.3%) patients in our study at a mean concentration of 147 ng/ml. Hodel et al., 2010 also reported the residual plasma concentration of CQ, MQ and QN before initiating the antimalarials treatment in patients (Hodel et al., 2010). This might be due to easy availability of CQ in the private clinics and pharmacy shops or due to its wide use in the treatment for a previous episode of Pv malaria. Previous st>GET ANSWER