As a result of industrial development, immigration, and territorial expansion, the United States in 1900 seemed to be significantly more diverse than it had been previously. Internally and politically, it had vast regional differences. Demographically, it now included people of many backgrounds, practicing many different religions, and speaking an astonishing number of languages.
How did various groups of Americans manage this newfound diversity? How did they understand it, how did they expect to benefit from or be harmed by it, and how did they seek to guide it or control it? And how, ultimately, were they changed by it?
Due to the marketplace now becoming highly competitive there is a need for businesses to be able to adapt and respond to market pressures. This leads to the requirement of employees to be temporal, numerical and functionally flexible for them to be able to adapt and respond to changes efficiently and gain competitive advantage (Walsh, 1990). Therefore, organisations view flexible working arrangements as a way to meet organisational needs, such as; to reduce costs and adapt to variations in supply and demand, rather than to meet the needs of their employees (Dickens, 1997). Adopting flexible working arrangements challenges the expectation that the “right” employee works full-time and long hours. However, in reality flexibility has not fully challenged this expectation and has not been able to ensure equality at work. Functional flexibility does not often meet the multiskilling of jobs but instead increases the workload of similar tasks but in a short timespan (Kirton and Greene, 2010). Even though there are several flexible working arrangements that organisations could use there has been an over-reliance on part-time work which is often low-paid and low-grade work (Blackwell, 2001). In the UK, 36.4% of females work part-time (OECD, 2020). If women and ethnic minorities want to have a “flexible” job then they are often expected to accept; lower pay, fewer employment rights, less training and chances in gaining a promotion (Kirton and Greene, 2010). Quality This dimension deals with the quality of employees, performance and HRM policies within the organisation. High-quality staff are seen to be the individuals who are strategically integrated, committed and are flexible and adaptable. If the organisation has a good reputation for having a high-quality workforce, then they will gain competitive advantage. Therefore, HRM needs to focus on; recruitment, selection, rewards, training, appraisal and goal setting to ensure this competitive advantage. These elements will ensure that high-quality staff are attracted and retained (Guest, 1987). HRM is usually unable to solve the wider societal structures and systems which disadvantage certain individuals in the labour market, such as socially constructed stereotypes (Kirton and Greene, 2010). In an article talking about race in the workplace one person said, “I don’t think that a day goes by that I’m not reminded that I’m black” (Caver and Livers, 2009, p.81). Racial stereotypes are often created by historical and cultural preconcep>GET ANSWER