Unit IV Case Study You are asked to evaluate employees’ exposures to methyl n-amyl ketone during a painting operation. After careful consideration, you choose NIOSH Method 2553 for the sampling.
collect personal samples on two employees working in the operation. The samples are collected for 430 minutes (Sample 1) and 440 minutes (Sample 2). 1. Calculate the sample volumes for each of the samples. The laboratory reports that the front section of Sample 1 contains 5,000 µg of methyl n-amyl ketone and the back section contains 200 µg of methyl n-amyl ketone. The front section of Sample 2 contains 4,000 µg of methyl n-amyl ketone and the back section contains 50 µg of methyl n-amyl ketone. Neither the front nor back sections of the field blank you supplied contain any detectable levels of methyl n-amyl ketone. 1. Calculate the concentrations of the two personal samples in µg/L and mg/m³. 2. Convert the result to ppm (MW for methyl n-amyl ketone = 114.2). Note: Use the ideal gas constant of 24.45. 3. Show all the steps for your calculations. You then reference OSHA’s Table Z-1 and find that the 8-hour TWA PEL for methyl n-amyl ketone is 100 ppm 1. Discuss how the results of the two personal samples you collected compare to the OSHA PEL, and describe the sampling method you implemented. You also look up the ACGIH TLV for methyl n-amyl ketone and find that the TLV is 50 ppm as an 8-hour TWA exposure. 1. Discuss how the results for the two personal samples compare to the ACGIH TLV. 2. Discuss whether you would recommend comparing the results of your sampling to the OSHA PEL or the ACGIH TLV. Include your rationale for the choice, and explain how you would rationalize your choice to your employer.
As part 1 had talked about the prologue to the exploration and section 2 had given an understanding into the writing audit, part 3 would center around the examination philosophy that would be done over the span of the examination. Generally, it is the establishment of how information would be gathered and broke down. Section 3 would start by examining on the hypothetical structure composed particularly for this paper, including and giving an outline and connections of the considerable number of factors display in this exploration. From that point on, 3.2 would talk about the diverse types of speculations improvement and the picked strategy for the specialists theories. Continuing through, 3.3 would talk about the examining plan, or as such, how the analyst expects to speak to the objective populace. This segment likewise gives point by point ventures on the specialist's arranged execution of a pilot test, the examining plan technique utilized and the inspecting methodology that would be started. Segment 3.4 would then get in contact on the information accumulation strategies that would be utilized by the analyst, both optional and essential sources. The information investigation area would be under 3.5, where systems with respect to the techniques for information examination and theories testing would be talked about. Section 3 would then finish up with a part rundown at 3.6. 3.1 Theoretical Framework The hypothetical system has been made to be an "applied structure of how one estimates or understands the connections among the components that have been distinguished as imperative to the issue" (Sekaran, 2003). It is created to have an understanding into the between connections among the factors that exist in this examination. All through this examination, there are three arrangement of factors have been recognized to be of most extreme significance to the specialist and can be ordered as the reliant and autonomous, and directing variable. The needy variable is the variable of essential enthusiasm to the scientist, to anticipate its changeability. This variable is frequently known as the result variable. In this examination, the needy variable alludes to the buy of extravagance merchandise by Generation Y. The autonomous factors then again, are the components that impact the reliant variable in a positive or negative path or in this specific situation, the elements that impact the buy of extravagance products. Figure 3.1 gives an understanding into the connection between both arrangement of factors. 3.2 Hypotheses Development A theory can be characterized as "a supposition made based on constrained proof as a beginning stage for promote examination" (www.askoxford.com). For the most part, reference aggregate impact is a gathering of individuals impacts the person's conduct. They give the data and give the attention to particular brands or items. The reference bunches impact can be influenced through associate, families, superstars and others are the key that etermine the buy choice of Generation Y. "Individuals have a tendency to carry on as per an edge of reference delivered by the gatherings to which they have a place" (Bearden and Etzel 1982). Along these lines, this examination trusts that the affiliation exits between reference bunches impact and buy of extravagance products. To exactly demonstrated this affiliation, the main speculation of this investigation is shaped as taken after: H1: There is a critical connection between reference bunches impact and buy of extravagance merchandise. The prominent utilization is utilized to show riches, influence and status. Veblenian customers join a more prominent significance to cost as a marker of eminence since they wan to awe others. Cost of the items decide the nature of the items which utilized by the buyers to judge the items. The investigates demonstrate that "obviousness of an item was decidedly identified with its powerlessness to reference amass impact" (Vigneron and Johnson, 1999). Other than that, character or self idea additionally has been show from the buyers to demonstrate the status and riches. The prominent utilization had ruled in various inquires about, and it can be expressed that obvious is critical to be recognize as seen esteem (Vigneron and Johnson, 1999). In this manner, the accompanying theory is shaped for the relationship between saw prominent vale and buy of extravagance products. H2: There is a noteworthy connection between saw prominent esteem and buy of extravagance merchandise. The stickler impact exists when "shoppers buy extravagance things and expects prevalent items and execution and in addition quality" (Vigneron and Johnson, 1999). The examination directed by Barnier, Rodina, Florence (2005) found that quality is the fundamental criteria prompt extravagance buy. As per Luong Thi Bich Thuy (2008), "the customer's quality observation would assume a positive part finished his or her impression of renown over a similar brand if the shopper saw the brand as having a great level of value". In this way, the accompanying theory is framed for the relationship between saw quality vale and buy of extravagance merchandise. H3: There is a huge connection between saw quality esteem and buy of extravagance merchandise. Brand picture can be characterizes as "discernments about a brand as reflected by the brand affiliations held in buyer memory" (Keller, 1993; Cheng, 2006; Rio, Varques, Iglesias, 2001). It impacts shopper recognition and critical to buy decision. Buyers ready to assess the items, bring down the buy hazard, get understanding and perceive the item separation through brand picture. As indicated by Grewal, Krishnan, Baker, and Borin (1998), "the better a brand picture is, the more acknowledgment buyers provide for its item quality". In this manner, the fourth speculation of study is: H4: There is a critical connection between mark picture and buy of extravagance products. Feel have solid impact on buy of extravagance great and it ought to dependably be the situation as indicated by Dubois, Laurent, Czellar (2001). Feel mirrors a tactile reaction in a crowd of people, for example, fulfillment, joy or influence. "The feel measurement is made out of configuration, shading and style that make excellence, they are of essential significance" (Barnier, Rodina, Florence, 2005). The exploration likewise demonstrated that French, Russian and UK buyers have a hedonic approach for extravagance got from style which Esthetics measurement in France earned the most astounding position, 29%, in contrast with Russia, 19% and the UK, 15%. Consequently, the fifth theory is shaped for the relationship amongst feel and buy of extravagance merchandise. H5: There is a critical connection amongst feel and buy of extravagance merchandise. 3.3 Population and Sampling 3.3.1 Population "Populace can be characterized as aggregate number of occupants constituting a specific race, class, or gathering in a predetermined region." (http://www.answers.com/subject/populace, no date). With reference to the current point, the analyst has set that the objective populace for this exploration would be the Generation Y in Malaysia. Indeed, even the age Y has been characterized as conceived in the middle of 1977 and 1994 by Horovitz (2002) and Sriviroj 2007, the investigation would overview particularly age Y who are matured in the vicinity of 20 and 29 which center around the understudies, college understudies and youthful working grown-ups. 3.3.2 Pilot Test for Questionnaire "Pilot test is a littler adaptation of a bigger report that is led to get ready for that review to guarantee that the thoughts or techniques behind an examination thought are sound, and in addition to "work out the crimps" in an investigation convention before propelling a bigger report." (http://ms.about.com/od/newsresearch/g/pilot_study.htm, no date). In this examination, the analyst plans to lead a pilot consider containing 10 surveys to college understudies in Multimedia University Melaka keeping in mind the end goal to legitimize the substance and unwavering quality of the poll. This is done as the specialist feels that the understudies in the University grounds fill in as an only portrayal of the expected target populace. The criticism from the respondents will be adjusted before dispersing to the focused on respondent. 3.3.3 Sampling Design Method An example of the populace can be drawn from one of two routes, either as likelihood testing or non likelihood examining. Sekaran (2003) depicted that "when components in a populace have a referred to shot of being picked as subjects in the example, we depend on likelihood inspecting outline". There are a few types of likelihood examining. The first is basic irregular examining which otherwise called unlimited testing. In a straightforward arbitrary example ('SRS') of a given size, every such subset of the edge are given an equivalent likelihood. Every component of the edge along these lines has an equivalent likelihood of determination. Basic arbitrary inspecting is otherwise called unhindered examining. The other shape is known as confined or complex likelihood testing. "The primary contrast between the two is that effectiveness is enhanced in that more data can be gotten for a given example estimate utilizing a portion of the perplexing likelihood examining methodology" (Sekaran, 2003). Case of this type of examining is the stratified irregular inspecting strategy where the populace is separated into subgroups and consequently sub tests. On the flipside, Sekaran (2003) expressed that non likelihood inspecting plans are those where "components in the populace don't have any probabilities connected to being picked as test subjects". One well known mode in this kind on examining is the comfort or inadvertent inspecting strategy. It is one "that is essentially accessible to the analyst by excellence of its availability" (Bryman and Bell, 2003). The choice of units from the populace depends on simple accessibility or potentially availability in accommodation examining. The specialist proposed to continue with the convenien>GET ANSWER