Preventing non-state actors from acquiring and using weapons of mass destruction (WMD) is among the highest national security priorities. Commonplace industrial chemicals, biological contaminants, and radioactive materials could be used to cause disruptions and mass casualties. The dual-use nature of these materials and technologies enables them to be turned into weapons and delivered by nonmilitary means. The latest threat is from commercially-available synthetic biology where known pathogenic viruses can be re-created, and microbes can be used to produce harmful biochemical bacteria in humans. The DNI, in the 2018 Worldwide Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community, assessed that biological and chemical materials and technologies are a global national security threat. They are almost always dual-use and can move easily in the globalized economy, as can personnel with the scientific expertise to design and use them for legitimate and illegitimate purposes. This U.S. recently commemorated the 17th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks and the anthrax letters, which were distributed and thought to be an indication of possible terrorist activity. In September of 2018, the National Security Council released the National Biodefense Strategy and the President is signing a National Security Presidential Memorandum. This strategy represents the importance of biodefense as a fundamental and distinct aspect of our national security. An inter-governmental and inter-agency operational effort is addressing this threat. The Department of Health and Human Services is the supported federal agency since a biological weapons attack could be potentially directed against our food supply, and plant and animal life.
For this assignment, the Department of Homeland Security will be the Intelligence Community lead in supporting the new National Biodefense Strategy. The DHS established a CWMD Office to address WMD threats. This WMD threat is being updated in the National Security Strategy, National Defense Strategy, Nuclear Posture Review, Combined Arms CWMD doctrine, and the National Biodefense Strategy and Implementation Plan.
Assignment: You have been assigned by the DNI to organize and lead an Intelligence Community Working Group to support the National Biodefense Strategy. Write a background paper about the Working Group addressing any three of the following topics with recommendations and/or courses of action: 1. Chose those agencies and specific departments (if information available) that should be included in the IC National Biodefense Strategy Working Group. For example, the FBI WMD Directorate which is prepared to anticipate, mitigate, disrupt, or respond to WMD threats; the Defense 2 Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) which specializes in CWMD; and the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) . 2. Identify Intelligence gaps in assessing bio threats from non-state actors, and the IC’s ability to provide a warning. 3. Discuss the leadership principles that would best promote Intelligence information sharing with agencies outside the IC such as Department of Health and Human Services. 4. Recommend the infusion of new technologies such as sensor arrays, cloud-based solutions and big data analytics which could improve real-time Intelligence collection and analysis.
Depict, think about, differentiate, and fundamentally assess the viability of both positivist and phenomenological technique embraced when contemplating society. Human science is the investigation of human culture, including both social activity and association. Sociologists utilize logical research techniques and speculations, and concentrate social life in a wide assortment of settings, this offers data as well as a particular method for taking a gander at the world and the position people play in it. Though the vast majority attempt to clarify occasions by examining the thought processes of those included, sociologists empower a look past individual brain research to many repeating demeanors, activities and how these examples shift crosswise over time, societies and social gatherings. To take a gander at the diverse ways individuals act and act in the public arena, it must be seen from a sociological point of view. Inside humanism there is no single strategy, however many. As expressed by Haralambos and Holborn (1995) Science had all the earmarks of being fit for delivering target learning that could be utilized to take care of human issues and increment human profitable limit in a remarkable way. This task will take a gander at the two principle techniques, utilized by sociologists, over a wide span of time, and look at the adequacy of the two. At the point when the errand of looking into the two strategies of positivism and phenomenology, received inside the investigation of society, there are numerous things that jump to mind: Firstly, there is the factor of time or around and besides is the impact of certain acclaimed sociologists inside the two distinct methodologies. System inside human science is the investigation of techniques and manages the philosophical suspicions hidden the exploration procedure, utilizing logical quantitative information gathering under those philosophical suppositions. The expansive system positions, positivism and phenomenology vary enormously. Positivism contains the hidden philosophical suspicions of research in the most unadulterated and connected sciences, material science, science and science, in view of thoughts of the target reality of the physical world, logical technique and induction. Similarly as positivism emerged out of dismissing theory an elective view has emerged out of dismissing the view that logical observation can be connected to the social world. There is nobody philosophical premise, yet phenomenology, which can be viewed as the reason for what is the presumption that society can just truly be comprehended through close to home activities, for example, dialect, sentiments and feelings. As expressed by Kirby, Kidd, Koubel, Barter, Hope, Kirton, Madry, Manning and Triggs, (2000), that in spite of the fact that not ideal the connection between the philosophies is that the structuralist-disapproved of sociologists had a tendency to receive a positivist methodology and social activity based sociologists have a tendency to embrace a phenomenological approach. The positivist versus the phenomenological way to deal with the investigation of man and society is considered as far as one of the real discussions in sociology explore. Huge numbers of the establishing fathers of humanism, for example, Marx (1818-1883), Comte (1798-1857) and Durkheim (1858-1917) trusted that it is conceivable to make a study of society in view of indistinguishable standards and strategies from regular sciences. Positivist scholars trusted that this methodology would uncover that the advancement of society pursued perpetual laws and that it would demonstrate that the conduct of man was represented by standards of circumstances and end results which are similarly as constant as the subject of characteristic sciences. Kirby et al, (2000) states that positivists trust that just by receiving a place of aggregate objectivity towards the topic or wonders can impartial learning or speculations be created. Comte had faith in the chain of importance of science and that each investigation of science is reliant upon another. His hypothesis went from the easiest to the more mind boggling types of science and that sciences above depend on sciences beneath expressing that humanism was more conceptual and troublesome than different sciences. Starting from his pecking order of science, as expressed in Haralambos and Holborn, (2004), Comte broadly trusted that industrialization and the development of logical information would prompt secularization, in this manner concocting his commitment to the investigation of social elements in that, the manage of social orders going through three phases characterized by their social connections. Philosophical law was a confidence in superhuman or divine forces, Metaphysical, a faith in the forces of the individual human personality and the constructive law depended on truth created by cooperative, quantitative and logical work. An interest of the positivist methodology is that logical information does not repudiate or amaze the experience of the ordinary world. It contends that components, which are not specifically detectable, for example, implications sentiments and reasons for existing, are not especially essential and can be deluding, they in this manner, frame, solid quantitative information. Phenomenological scholars, for example, Simmel (1858-1918) and Weber (1864-1920) suggest that the awareness is the best possible territory of study, for its investigation will uncover meaning. They look to detect reality and portray in words as opposed to numbers, endeavoring to deliver persuading depictions regarding what they encounter instead of clarifications and causes. Weber couldn't help contradicting Comte's hypothesis, he accepted there could be the same number of sciences as required, Quantitative and exact examinations can't guide individuals, and it is imperative to go past basically recording occasions and to clarify the explanations for them. When alluding to Weber's concept of 'rigidity', a contextual investigation in the experimental development of the protestant ethic, Weber, as refered to by Ghosh (2003), obviously expresses that exact sources are not tablets of stone, everlastingly accessible to reality looking for student of history; rather they have a background marked by their own. Weber trusted that qualities assume a pivotal job before amid and after research and that social activity is represented by the dynamic of individual needs. Weber was focused on the investigation of causality, the likelihood that an occasion would be trailed by another occasion not really of a comparable sort. Notwithstanding this Weber additionally examined the levels to which reasonability was ending up institutionally installed in current industrialized social orders. Marx's perspective of administration was by Weber a type of association better than all others, Weber wrote in one of his numerous books, that without this type of social innovation the industrialized nations couldn't have achieved the riches and lavishness that they as of now appreciate, (Weber, 1928) as refered to in Haralambos and Holborn, (2004). He trusted that this limit with regards to social request would prompt the development of the iron pen, and thus, a general public that was in fact requested, inflexible and dehumanized. As expressed by Giddens (1997) Weber looked to comprehend social change. He was impacted by Marx but on the other hand was unequivocally incredulous of a portion of Marx's real perspectives, dismissed the materialistic origination of history and saw class strife as less huge than Marx. From a positivist position, Marx trusted that thoughts were articulations of open intrigue and that they filled in as weapons in the battle among classes and political gatherings. Class for Marx, is characterized as a social relationship instead of a position or rank in the public eye. Class battle and proprietors of generation decided monetary request. In Marx's view, classes are characterized and organized by work, work, belonging, generation, and the class structures of private enterprise comprised of class battle, political power and the improvement of an uncouth society. Marx's hypothesis of society comprised of two classifications of class and that monetary request was controlled by the two; Bourgeoisie, the industrialist class, the progressive system, the rich, the businesses and the Proletariat, who are the specialists or the lower class. His view was that as the bourgeoisie utilized the low class, who needs to satisfy his fundamental needs, the industrialist class couldn't exist without them. As refered to by Haralambos and Holborn (1995), Marxism has now and again been viewed as a positivist methodology since it tends to be contended that it sees human conduct as a response to the improvement of the financial framework. In spite of the fact that Weber concurred with Marx to some degree, that as strategies for the association expanded productivity and adequacy of creation, Marx's hypothesis undermined to dehumanize society. Weber's speculations, stratification and perspectives on financial conduct were established from Marx's view on the financial matters of a general public. Another positivist view originated from Emile Durkheim, whose impression of society was of structures that capacity separated from human reason and will. While he viewed society as made out of people, his hypothesis was that it isn't people practices, contemplations and activities that develop society, however that society has a structure and presence of its own. His thinking was, that society was to have created from conventional to present day society, through the extension and improvement of the division of work, obviously, it is people who act, yet they don't follow up on a simply singular premise, they have commitments and obligations and are unequivocally impacted by structure, custom and the jobs of our progenitors. Durkheim viewed himself as with the issue of social request and how present day society holds together, given that society is made out of numerous people each acting in an individual and independent way. Durkheim's exemplary investigation of suicide, (1970, first distributed in 1897), as refered to in Haralambos and Holborn, (2004) is regularly observed as a model of positivist research and it does in reality pursue a considerable lot of the methodological systems of positivism. Albeit supporting the two distinct philosophies of human science, Durkheim was vigorously affected by Weber, who characterized social science as the investigation of social activity between people. As opposed to Durkheim's impression of society and view that society has an>GET ANSWER