Research police efforts to stop drunk driving.
What are the most frequently used methods?
What appears to be the most effective method to combat drunk driving?
What other methods would you recommend using to enforce drunk driving laws?
This write up will discuss a specific type of immunodeficiency disorder that is classified under humoral immunity disorders; it is called Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia, also known as X-linked recessive agammaglobulinemia. Firstly, I will provide an overview of the immune system (specifically the adaptive immune system focusing on B lymphocytes) followed by the pathophysiology, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of the disease in question. The immune system Physical barriers like skin, cornea, and mucosa of the respiratory, GI, and GU form the first line of defence against pathogens. However, if the pathogens manage to breach these barriers, the immune system defends the body against these pathogens through other mechanisms. The immune system constitutes of the innate (natural) immune system and the adaptive (acquired) immune system. We will not be discussing the innate immune system in much details as this case is concerned with the adaptive immune system and more specifically B lymphocytes. The innate immune system is non-specific and does not confer long-lasting immunity against pathogens. It consists of: Innate lymphoid cells (e.g., natural killer [NK] cells). Polymorphonuclear leukocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils. Mononuclear cells: monocytes, macrophages, mast cells. Adaptive immunity is antigen-specific and allows for a stronger immune response as well as immunological memory. It consists of: B lymphocytes They are also called B cells, and they are a type of white blood cells that function in the humoral immunityby secreting antibodies. B lymphocytes are formed in the bone marrow and continue to mature in the bone marrow; then they migrate to secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), where they can be activated by bindnig to an antigen coming through the circulating lymph. B cells bind to antigens via B cell receptors (BCR). The activation of B cells is enhanced by the activity of CD21, a surface receptor in complex with surface proteins CD19 and CD81. (Ambrose did not have any B cell markers CD19) There are different types of B cells: Plasmablast- a short-lived, proliferating antibody-secreting cell, however, their antibodies have a weaker affinity to their target antigen compared to a plasma cell. Plasma cell – lives longer than plasmoblasts, however, it is non-proliferating antibody-secreting cell. Lymphoplasmacytoid cell – a subtype of plasma cells. Memory B cell – circulate through the body and initiate a stronger, quicker response when they detect the antigen that had previously activated their parent B cell. Follicular (FO) B Cell – found mainly in the lymphoid follicles of SLOs; they secrete high-affinity antibodies during an infection. Regulatory B (Breg) cell – acts as an immunosuppressive B cell; it stops the expansion of pathogenic, pro-inflammatory lymphocytes.>GET ANSWER