Describe issues related to security, interoperability, and operations.
Prioritize and articulate the selected requirements based on immediate need, security posture, complexity, resource availability, and cost.
Identify at least 4 applicable government regulations/ standards that govern how the requirements must be met, implemented, or measured. Provide rationale for why these are applicable.
Using NIST Special Publication 800-53 select at least 4 security controls that relate to these issues and describe how these controls enhance the security posture or facilitates the secure implementation of these
Value Elasticity of Demand (PED) measures the rate change in the cost of an item, to the rate change of interest for that same item. It is estimated through changing degrees of versatility. An inelastic decent implies that an adjustment in cost will have an almost no impact on the request. Because of PED=%?Q/%?P, inelastic goods have a PED<1, clarifying the slope of the chart in Figure 1. On the off chance that an item is totally inelastic (PED=0),it implys that anyway much an assessment builds, it doesn't influence request, as purchasers are as yet going to get it. In the event that the value pairs and individuals purchase the greater part of what they were initially going to get, it's inelastic. On the off chance that it's not as much as a large portion of, it's flexible. Since smoking is addictive, and purchasers are continually ready to pay, it is inelastic. Tax assessment is the procedure in which the administration impacts the economy, and is the premise of the Fiscal Policy. The primary inspiration for this arrangement is income, as expense fund-raises to spend on enhancing society for the general population, for instance enhancing the NHS, schools and streets. It likewise redistributes riches all the more similarly among the general population, and decrease negative externalities. There are two kinds of roundabout tax collection. Promotion Valorem Tax is executed most much of the time, where the expense connected to a decent is corresponded to the value it is being sold at, so is a level of the aggregate cost, as of now collected at the standard rate of 15%. Nonetheless, Specific Tax is a type of aberrant tax collection that did not depend on the estimation of the merchandise, just the amount. For instance, if two bundles of cigarettes both contained 20 cigarettes, one was evaluated at £5.99 and the other at £2.99, in light of the fact that they both contain a similar amount, the duty included would be a steady esteem, paying little heed to the first offering cost. There are numerous elements that should be mulled over when taking a gander at value flexibility of requests and tax collection. The availabilty of substitutes will make request more flexible, as clients have more contrasting options to purchase. In any case, when there are no suitable substitutes, and the client does not be able to put off consumtion, they are viewed as a need, and along these lines the value flexibility of interest will be extremely inelastic. While considering particular expense being obligatory for purchasers of cigarettes, and the progressions this would realize with respect to flexibility, the addictive component of niccotine must be considered about what impacts this would have on request. It is demonstrated that "expenses on cigarettes can be raised about 2.5 times the present level with no fall in income" (Rigo, 2005). Thusly, the interest for cigarettes will be inelastic. As appeared in Figure 1, the interest for an inelastic merchandise, for example, cigarettes, is exceptionally inert to an adjustment in cost. The making of a bigger particular duty for cigarettes isn't just a weight on the shopper be that as it may. The maker may need to bring down their unique cost to ensure their clients still buy their item. This implies the organization needs to ingest a large portion of the assessment if the PED is flexible. In any case, the option is that the business can pass the expense on to the purchaser by expanding the cost of a decent, and this is called moving the weight of duty. Seeing as cigarettes have an extremely inelastic request, this gives the organization the capacity and certainty to build costs without stressing over loss of offers. This is appeared in Figure 2. Figure 2 demonstrates the impact that a particular duty has on shoppers when request is inelastic. It will make request tumble from D to Dt, which causes the amount requested to tumble from q* to qt. The balance cost after the duty is Ps, which is the thing that the makers will charge, and including the expense best of that cost will give Pc, with the assessment income being AC. Essentially, when request is flexible and a particular expense is forced, it will make request move left from F to Ft. this will cause the amount requested to likewise fall. With another harmony, providers will charge Ts, anyway customers are paying Tc. This is appeared in Figure 3. In this way, because of the way that interest for cigarettes is exceptionally inelastic, the burden of a particular duty on shoppers for this cooperative attitude have little impact on the amount purchased, as appeared in Figure 2. Another major contributing component to the assessment occurrence is known as the Deadweight Loss, which is appeared by the shaded triangle In both Figure 2 and Figure 3. B+D is the dead weight reduction that happens because of the burden of the assessment on buyers. On account of cigarettes, the legislature would want to limit the span of the adverse externality that is caused by individuals smoking. It demonstrates the loss of monetary movement because of the expense. The legislature gets a considerable measure of positive outcomes from raising income through expanding charges. It is required as their financial plan might keep running in a shortage. The publics cash could be utilized to lessen this. By setting a particular assessment on cigarettes, it implies they deal with how much cash they get from every parcel of cigarettes purchased, as it's anything but a rate. Through the expansion in cost, this will ideally remove a little minority of smokers; anyway by far most of the objective purchasers will at present be set up to pay the expanded cost, because of how inelastic the request is. It disencourages smokers, which for the administration's picture indicates philanthropy as they are attempting to ensure the wellbeing of their nation, in any case, they are as yet profiting by accepting all the extra assessment. A result of this is less individuals depending on the NHS for smoking related issues, which means the legislature can put additional time and cash into enhancing different parts of society. So the administration has two inspirations; the assessment diminishes request while additionally raising income. Cigarettes are viewed as a bad mark great, implying that straightforwardly to the shopper they have a negative impact, yet in addition to all of society by implication. Some substantial expenses are as per the following. The NHS is put under strain as they need to manage restorative conditions as a result of tobacco utilization. This incorporates the impact of latent smoking to non-smokers. It likewise can influence generation for an organization, as though there is more infection or demise because of smoking, efficiency will diminish. Another negative part of smoking is the potential for flames. Dropping cigarettes in the home, or even out in the open, may result in flames, which will put an extra strain on the legislature as they have to give a fire benefit. A comparable negative mark is litter. Cigarette butts are littered all through avenues, and by and by it's down to your gathering or government to tidy up. By forcing a particular duty on smokers, these the quantity of individuals purchasing cigarettes will diminish somewhat; anyway the greatest effect will be the expansion in stores the legislature needs to spend battling these issues all the more effectively. In social orders where the administration exploits its control over charging society whatever it needs, underground markets may show up. These offer products that are less expensive than ordinary merchandise, as they avoid any assessment actualized by governments. In this manner, if the legislature forced an outrageous expense on cigarettes and the objective market couldn't manage the cost of the item, they could swing to illegal businesses. "In England, one-portion of all cigarettes are sold on the underground market." (Smoking Aloud, 2006) These business sectors are extremely negative to the administration, as it implies that they begin to lose a piece of control over cigarettes, and therefore they can't keep precise records of the nicotine advertise. The addictive idea of smoking could prompt more individuals utilizing illicit businesses as request is so inelastic. In spite of the fact that the interest for cigarettes has been exceptionally inelastic, there is prove that a 'tipping point' might approach, which means the administration should be watchful about how much duty they put on the item. The proof for this change is the ongoing blast in substitute merchandise, for example, nicotine fixes and biting gum, in any case, this lone influences cigarette deals on a little scale-"for each £1 spent on nicotine substitution, over £130 is spent on cigarettes" (Riley, 2006). For whatever length of time that the PED is extremely inelastic, the administration can control and increment the particular duty put on cigarettes, as the buyers will dependably buy. It is obvious from the cases appeared over that flexibility significantly affects the inconvenience of expenses on purchasers. On account of cigarettes there is an amazingly inelastic interest for the great, due the absence of essence of no nearby substitutes and the addictive idea of the item. References MANKIW, N. and TAYLOR, M. (2006) Economics. Thompson Learning. Rijo, J. (2005). Research Gate [online] Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/production/5127282_Price_elasticity_estimates_for_tobacco_and_other_addictive_goods_in_India [Accessed 25 November 2009] Smoking Aloud (2006). Bootleg market Cigarettes [online] Available at: http://www.smokingaloud.com/underground market cigarettes.html [Accessed 25 November 2009]>GET ANSWER