In June 2013, the High Court held that a casino does not owe special duty to its patrons in cases where they have a gambling problem.
The Court, in a joint judgement, upheld the decision of the primary judge stating “[i]n the absence of a relevant legislative provision, there is no general duty upon a casino to protect gamblers from themselves.”
Does the Northern Territory Supreme Court have to follow this decision? What would be required for this decision to be overruled? In your answer, explain how the Australian courts employ the doctrine of precedent in reaching their decisions. Refer particularly to the role of decisions of the High Court in the development of the law in Australia.
A few parts of arithmetic can be dull and dreary from begin to end, quite a bit of it anyway is captivating and rousing, when you really observe the excellence and the importance. This is the reason I might want to draw out into the open the enchantment of the Fibonacci numbers. On the off chance that you have ever taken a gander at a sheet of paper and asked Why do we utilize those measurements? or then again took a gander at the leaf or an alluring plant and asked Why can I never locate a four leaved clover? at that point this might be of some intrigue. A large number of these things are very interconnected in a way you would not understand, and the vast majority of them are associated by the Fibonacci succession. On the off chance that I come back to one of my unique inquiries Why can I never locate a four leaved clover? it appears to be sensible, that in the event that you can discover 3 leaved clover and 5 leaved clover, you would have the capacity to locate the more symmetrical 4 leaved clover. Why at that point is it so uncommon to discover one? In the event that we take a gander at different cases of nature, we can maybe discover the appropriate response. If you somehow happened to seek through your normal garden, you would discover the greater part of blooms have 5 petals, many have 3 or at least 8 yet in the event that you look carefully, you will dependably discover a greater amount of specific numbers, contrasted with others. These numbers just so happen to be a piece of the Fibonacci succession: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89... In spite of the fact that, for what reason does nature pick these numbers over others? What's more, the association between this present reality and this arrangement does not simply end there; it can be discovered wherever we look: spirals on a snail shell, the center of an apple, geometry, workmanship, design, the share trading system and even the human body. So what makes it so valuable? For what reason is it so exceptional? My venture plans to answer these inquiries and en route find new applications and more illustrations. I will dive into the numerical ideas driving the nature we see each day, the normal items we depend on, the human body and the share trading system. I will likewise examine parts of the brilliant proportion and how the Fibonacci arrangement is identified with this. The Fibonacci arrangement is found by adding the past term to the term before that. For instance: 0, 1, 1, 2, ? 0 +1=1 1+1=2 1+2=3 thus on..... In general condition for next term: a_(n+1)= a_n+ a_(n-1) This makes an unbounded succession of numbers and is known as a recursive arrangement, as each number is a component of the past two. Likewise, as the arrangement advances the proportion between each sequential term appears unite upon a solitary number. 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89... 2/1=2 3/2=1.5 5/3=1.667 8/5=1.6 13/8=1.625 21/13=1.615... F=1.618034... In the long run, it meets to 1.618034... This number has a particular enthusiasm to numerous mathematicians and is known as the brilliant proportion. It is likewise valuable when we consider where it is found. If you somehow managed to grasp your hand and twist the forefinger as full as could reasonably be expected, estimating the measurements of the square shape made, you would discover what is known as a brilliant square shape. The normal stature (of the transitional phalange) would be around 3cm and the normal length (of the proximal phalange) would be 5cm. As should be obvious from left this makes a state of proportion 5:3 or just 1.667:1 (the brilliant proportion). This is just a single of the numerous cases of brilliant proportion in the body. There are many, numerous all the more some of which have been known for a long time (see Da Vinci s Vitruvian man - right). Likewise, the brilliant proportion isn't simply bound to the human body. As opposed to slicing and apple from shaft to post, if you somehow happened to cut in a level design, you would locate a basic five pointed star. In any case, it is considerably more unpredictable than meets the eye. If you somehow happened to accept the separation AB as 1 unit, the separation AC would be 1.618, the brilliant proportion. However, for what reason does this happen, what make this proportion so productive thus engaging, and why has nature embraced it? History of the Sequence and Ratio From the beginning of the Palaeozoic period, 400 million years prior, creatures of perfect extents have been wandering the earth. The most prominent is the nautilus shell (right) which takes after a logarithmic winding in light of the brilliant proportion in square shapes. The soonest composed documentation of an extraordinary proportion has a place with the Rhind papyrus. A look around 6 meters in length and 1/3 of a meter wide, it is one of the principal numerical handbooks. It was found by Scottish Egyptologist Henry Rhind in 1858 and is accepted to have been composed by Egyptian copyist, Ahmes in 1650 BC. He is accepted to have duplicated it, from an archive 200 years more established, dating the principal documentation of the arrangement to 1850 BC. Be that as it may, the pyramids, fabricated 1000 years past, indicate numerous cases of the utilization of brilliant proportion, albeit numerous researchers trust it is just happenstance made by the requirement for right edges. Between the sixth and third hundreds of years, Greek thinkers, mathematicians and specialists utilized and examined the brilliant proportion. It is noticeable in pentagons and pentagrams all through the period and was ascribed to Pythagoras and his supporters. It was utilized as a feature of his image (a pentagram with a pentagon inside) and it was he, who initially associated the extent was the premise with the human figure. Plato likewise contemplated the proportion naming it most blinding of scientific relations, the way to the material science of the universe. what's more, from his addresses so did Eudoxus, whose work was utilized by Euclid in his book of components II. Here he thinks of one of the primary definitions A straight line is said to have been cut in outrageous and mean proportion when, as the entire line is to the more prominent portion, so is the more prominent to the less." During his work he makes issues in light of the proportion in pentagons, symmetrical triangles and a portion of his relational words demonstrate the proportion to be a silly number. The principal individual to apply numbers and grouping to build the brilliant proportion was Leonardo of Pisa (full name, Leonardo Pisano Bigollo, lived 1180-1250). He was the child of an Italian specialist from the city of Pisa and grew up inside an exchanging province in North Africa. At the time, Italy and the lion's share of Europe was utilizing the Roman numeral arrangement of checking, this was very unpredictable and implied most computations required a math device. While experiencing childhood in Algeria he took in the Hindu-Arabic arrangement of computation (the well-known 0, 1, 2...). Subsequent to coming back to Pisa as a young fellow in the thirteenth century, he perceived the prevalence of this new structure and started to spread it all through Europe. He did this through his book the Liber Abaci (book of math device) distributed in 1202 under the moniker, Fibonacci (a constriction of filius Bonacci, which means child of Bonacci). To clarify the framework he utilized the Fibonacci grouping in his acclaimed unfading rabbits issue (see next area of more detail). This enabled him to clarify expansion, subtraction and division utilizing the Hindu-Arabic framework and thus enabled him to promote it through Western Europe. Because of this he was later known as the author of western science and the "best European mathematician of the medieval times". He presented ideas, for example, variable based math, geometry, the basic portion and even the square root image. He additionally thought about negative numbers and related it to trader issues which started with an obligation.>GET ANSWER