Public Policy in the New Deal
In this forum, you will have an opportunity to investigate a variety of New Deal legislation that changed the economic situation of average Americans and the operation of the economy itself. As a result, income inequality declined markedly in the 1930s and federal government assumed a new role of preventing or alleviating economic depression. This is an example of public policy in action.
Below is a list of laws or policy initiatives from the 1930s. Each student should use the web to learn about one law and its implementation, and then summarize what it was and what its impact was by Thursday of this week. Please use your own words in the summary – do not just cut and paste from the web. Put the name of the policy first in your post so others can see what you are writing about. Note: Some laws/agencies have been grouped together for logical reasons even though they were enacted sequentially.
New Deal Laws and Public Policies:
National Industrial Recovery Act and the National Recovery Administration (NRA)
Securities Act of 1933 and the SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission)
Works Progress Administration (later renamed Works Project Administration)
Wagner Act, aka National Labor Relations Act
Fair Labor Standards Act
Social Security Act
Suspension of the Gold Standard and then the Gold Reserve Act
Tennessee Valley Administration
Civilian Conservation Corp.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (1933 and 1938)
National Youth Administration
Clearly stated in Article 94 UNCLOS 1982 that one of the duties of flag state is to take such measures for ships flying its flag as are necessary to ensure safety at sea, which required to conform to generally accepted international regulations (UNCLOS, 1982). Having consider that States should not only become party to the convention, but also fully implemented their obligations, IMO establish Resolution A.996(25) Code for the Implementation of Mandatory IMO Instruments. Based on this code, there are strategies that should be developed by the States in order to achieve objective of the code, which is enhancing global maritime safety and protection of marine environment (IMO, 2007). Indonesia through its maritime administration should establish system which develop this strategy to fulfill their duty as flag state. This paper try to compare four strategies mention in Resolution A.996(25) with system established in Indonesia in general; and specifically explore the consequence of the code for Indonesia in terms of casualty investigation. II. Strategy for enhancing maritime safety and protection of marine environment Based on Resolution A.996(25), there are 4 strategies should be developed by the States. First strategy, implementation and enforcement of IMO convention; Implementation of flag state responsibility cover many aspect, such as convention interpretation, education and manning, flag state inspection, certification issues,Â authorization and monitoring RO, and casualty investigation. However, these implementation and enforcement are fully depends on ability and willingness of member parties. Contracting Governments enforce the provisions of IMO conventions as far as their own ships are concerned and also set the penalties for infringements, where these are applicable (IMO, 2009). Ratify a Convention and bring it into full and complete effect through internal law is not easy for contracting government. To establish effective maritime legislation, after set it up, it should be easy to change and keep updated with IMO change, set up IMO legislative tracking, attend IMO meeting and maintain effective communication with other parts of government (Belcher, 2009). Survey and certification is one of the ways to enforce standard developed by administration. In some cases, countries which are lack of expertise and experience have found convenience in delegating their functions to Recognized Organizations (Villanueva, 2004). Many developed administrations also decided to delegate part of their function to RO, in order to effectively expand their capabilities on worldwide basis. RO such as classification society have believed as professional solution for global surveyor network and technical expertise (Schlott, 2009). However, some problems arise regarding statutory work delegation. For example, audit of Denmark shows the needs of more effective monitoring of statutory survey record held by RO (VIMSAS-Denmark, 2007). Therefore in term of authorization, Maritime Administration should fully refer to Resolution A.789(19) “Specifications on the survey and certification functions of recognized organizations acting on behalf ofÂ administrations” and Resolution A.739(18) “Guidelines for the authorization of organizations acting on behalf of the administration” (Schlott, 2009). Second strategy, adherence to international recommendations; apart from Mandatory instrument such as Load Lines, SOLAS and COLREG, flag state should also refer to international recommendation such as IMO resolution or circular which contain guidelines or other non mandatory code>GET ANSWER