1. With reference to the case of Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company, explain the essential ingredients for a valid contract and why this case was considered a contract and not an invitation to treat. (25 marks)

2. With case examples explain what is meant by the consideration of a contract (25 marks)

3. Give a description of the case Donoghue v Stephenson and what is meant by the ‘neighbour principle’ (25 marks)

4. How many tests are used to determine whether someone is employed or self-employed? Give a brief outline of these tests (25 marks)



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