Describe how you would communicate with members of your team within your own discipline who exhibit traits of each of the four types of people. Incorporate the concepts from The Johari Window.
CASE STUDY: COMMUNICATION STYLE MATCH
Members of the interprofessional team on a geriatric unit (physician, nurse, physical therapist, occupational therapist, and social worker) are meeting to discuss patient safety on the unit. During the previous quarter, falls increased by 10%. Analysis of the incident reports indicates that an examination of the fall prevention program that is offered jointly by nursing, physical therapy, and occupational therapy is indicated. The team is meeting with the goal of designing a revised fall prevention program for the unit. The proposed program will need to be based in the most current evidence, ensure the safety of the patients, and be cost effective. All four styles of communication noted previously in this chapter—action oriented (physician and physical therapist), process oriented (occupational therapist), people oriented (social worker), and idea oriented (nurse)—are represented. The leader (in this case, it is the physical therapist) is an identified action-oriented communicator. In preparation for the first meeting, she reviews strategies for adjusting her communication style to the team members and prepares her opening remarks. Her remarks might vary depending on how she perceives the other members of the group. She lists pointers for addressing the others based on their communication styles, along with alternate statements for each type.
COMMUNICATING WITH AN ACTION-ORIENTED PERSON:
Focus on the results first.
State your best recommendation.
Emphasize the practicality of your idea.
At the first meeting, if the other members are action oriented, the physical therapist might say, “The purpose of this group is to address the increased number of falls on the unit this last quarter. We need to revise the fall prevention program that is currently offered. I recommend that we construct a program around the three components that have been identified in the literature. Developing a fall prevention program that includes exercise, fall prevention, and environmental components is the most effective focus.”
COMMUNICATING WITH A PROCESS-ORIENTED PERSON:
State the facts.
Present your thoughts in a logical manner.
Include options with pros and cons.
Do not rush the person.
If the other members are process oriented, the physical therapist might say, “The purpose of this group is to address the increased number of falls on the unit this last quarter. We need to revise the fall prevention program that is currently offered. One option that we may choose to pursue is to do a literature review on the efficacy of fall prevention and develop a custom program for our unit. We may also explore the option of purchasing existing modules. What are your thoughts?”
COMMUNICATING WITH A PEOPLE-ORIENTED PERSON:
Allow for small talk at the beginning of a session.
Stress the relationship between the proposal and the people concerned.
Show how the idea worked well in the past.
Show respect for people.
The physical therapist might say to such a group, “The purpose of this group is to address the increased number of falls on the unit this last quarter. Each of you has been chosen for this team because of your demonstrated commitment to patient safety. You are the experts in the day-to-day care of our patients. One area that we may need to consider is a revision of the fall prevention program that we currently offer. Institutions that are similar to ours have reported great success in reducing patient falls using a combination of exercise, addressing fear of falling, and modifying the environment.”
COMMUNICATING WITH AN IDEA-ORIENTED PERSON:
Allow enough time for discussion.
Do not get impatient when they go off on tangents.
Be broad and conceptual in your opening.
The physical therapist could address this type of group by saying, “As key staff members on this geriatric unit, you have demonstrated your commitment to patient safety. I have asked each of you to be a member of this team because we have yet another safety concern. The purpose of this group is to address the increased number of falls on the unit this last quarter. We need to revise the fall prevention program that is currently offered. Yes, the plan for tornado drills has been effective. Is there anything that we learned during the development and implementation of the tornado drill policy that we can bring to the creation of a fall prevention program?”
By acknowledging the presence of a variety of communication styles and adjusting her approach, this leader has demonstrated respect for team members and hopefully avoided potential problems in team communication at the beginning of this important project.
The Johari window.
The model is represented as a square that is divided into four window panes or perspectives.
Quadrant 1: Open/free area—what is known by the individual person and also known by others
Quadrant 2: Blind area—what is known by others but unknown to the individual
Quadrant 3: Hidden area—what is known by the individual and consciously hidden from others
Quadrant 4: Unknown area—what is unknown to both the individual and others
The panes/areas expand and contract to reflect the proportion of individual or group knowledge about an area. In newly formed groups, for instance, the open area is small since newly assembled groups of people know relatively little about one another. As groups mature, the open area increases as more information is shared and more cooperation and collaboration ensue. If open areas remain diminished, the group may be vulnerable to misunderstanding, mistrust, and confusion, and delay progress toward maturity. The ultimate goal for team members is to increase the size of the open area and decrease the size of the other areas through positive communication. The blind area is also known as the “bad breath area” because an individual is unaware of something that is known by everyone else. In the case of an individual, this could be a habit such as constantly glancing at a cell phone during a meeting—unaware that the other members of the group perceive this as disrespectful. Asking for and providing constructive feedback reduces this area.
While it is appropriate to use discretion when disclosing personal or private information, feelings and information related to work proves only be helpful if they are allowed into the open area. The process of disclosure—exposing relevant information and feelings—reduces the hidden area and further expands the open area. So a group member might disclose that he/she feels disrespected when someone is checking a cell phone during a meeting or conversation. The unknown area contains information such as unconscious needs, motivations, or inherent abilities that are unrecognized by the individual or the group (Figure 3-2). By examining the unknown area, individuals begin to understand that perceptions of present situations may be rooted in past experiences and the insecurity or anger that may have been experienced during a difficult childhood may be a hot button that is easily triggered by a difficult interaction in the present.
FIGURE 3-2 Feedback and self-disclosure and the Johari window.
Data from Luft, J., Ingham, H. (1950). The Johari window, a graphic model of interpersonal awareness. Proceedings of the Western Training Laboratory in group development. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA.
With the realization that our perceptions of present situations are formed through the lens of our own life experiences, we begin to seek information from others in order to construct a more complete picture. The ability to separate our perceptions from actuality allows us to become emotionally independent, no longer bound by automatic negative responses to triggers or hot buttons, and better able to make strategic choices regarding our actions and reactions.
If the unknown area is not reduced, the group runs the risk of not being able to leverage all of an individual’s talents. In addition, the individual runs the risk of not realizing his/her true potential—bound by old ways of knowing and reacting and reducing the chances of self-actualization and motivation to become engaged in the group’s work. This type of awareness can be sparked through self-discovery, observations by others, and methods of inquiry that encourage mutual discovery. Leaders and members who use positive communication to facilitate self-discovery, solicit and provide constructive feedback, and foster the free flow of information create a psychologically safe environment that engenders creativity, productivity, and sustained high performance.
Dynamic What caused the budgetary emergency that is clearing over the world? What is the job of obligation and use in causing resource advertise rises to shape and crumple? What keeps resource costs and loaning discouraged? What should be possible to cure matters? This paper will display a subjective survey of the job of obligation and use in causing resource showcase rises to shape and fall in the land advertise under the setting of the worldwide budgetary emergency. Long-run causality seems to go from property costs to bank loaning. Writing Review The course of causality between bank loaning and property costs The causality between bank loaning and property costs goes in the two bearings. Property costs may influence bank loaning by means of different riches impacts (Hofmann, 2003). To begin with, because of monetary market blemishes, family units and firms might get obliged. Thus, families and firms can just obtain when they offer guarantee, with the goal that their getting limit is an element of their collateralisable total assets. Since property is generally utilized as security, property costs are hence an essential determinant of the private part's obtaining limit. Second, an adjustment in property costs may significantly affect purchasers' apparent lifetime riches, prompting them to change their spending and obtaining plans and in this manner their credit request with the end goal to cover utilization up the existence cycle. At last, property costs influence the estimation of bank capital, both specifically to the degree that banks possess resources, and by implication by influencing the estimation of advances anchored by property. Property costs in this way impact the hazard taking limit of banks and consequently their eagerness to expand credits. The writing over the most recent couple of decades alluded to chance taking conduct of budgetary market members during bounteous liquidity, banks' use focusing on conduct and a portfolio genuine equalization impact of other monetary go-betweens. Budgetary mediators, which must keep up a satisfactory proportion of cash-flow to resources, can be prevented from loaning, or incited to move the organization of credits from bank-subordinate divisions, for example, independent companies, by decreases in the estimations of the advantages they hold (Bernanke and Gertler, 2000). Bank loaning, then again, may influence property costs through different liquidity impacts. The cost of property can be viewed as an advantage value, or, in other words the marked down future stream of property returns. An expansion in the accessibility of credit may bring down loan costs and animate present and future expected monetary action. Therefore, property costs may rise in light of higher expected profits for property and a lower markdown factor. Property can likewise be viewed as a solid decent in incidentally settled supply. An expansion in the accessibility of credit may build the interest for lodging if family units are getting compelled. With supply incidentally settled as a result of the time it takes to develop new lodging units, this expansion popular will be reflected in higher property costs. This potential two-path causality between bank loaning and property costs may offer ascent to commonly fortifying cycles in credit and property markets. An ascent in property costs, caused by more idealistic assumptions regarding future financial prospects, raises the obtaining limit of firms and families by expanding the estimation of security. Some portion of the extra accessible credit may likewise be utilized to buy property, pushing up property costs significantly further, with the goal that a self-strengthening procedure may develop. Potential concurrence issues are controlled for the heading of causality between bank loaning and property costs, as concentrated by Gerlach and Peng (2002). Bank loaning, which was changed into genuine terms by collapse with the CPI (shopper value record), is characterized as aggregate credit to the private non-bank part. Crosscountry examinations of the improvement of bank loaning are defective by contrasts in the meaning of aggregate credit crosswise over nations. These distinctions in definition will be reflected in the consequences of the observational investigation. Contrasts exist, for instance, as for the treatment of non-performing advances (NPLs) in national credit totals. A drop in property costs will from one viewpoint negatively affect the augmentation of new credits. Then again, it will offer ascent to an expansion in NPLs. The assessed impact of property costs on bank loaning will along these lines rely upon whether banks are compelled to discount NPLs rapidly or not. For example, Japan and the Nordic nations (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) experienced serious managing an account emergencies in the late 1980s or mid 1990s, which were gone before by a fall in property costs. While NPLs were immediately washed down from banks' accounting reports in the Nordic nations, this was not the situation in Japan. To a more extensive view, bank loaning has contributed altogether to the land rise in Asia preceding the 1997 East Asian emergency. Quarterly private property value lists were accessible for all nations with the exception of Japan, Italy and Germany. For Japan and Italy, semi-yearly records were changed to quarterly recurrence by direct interjection. For Germany, a quarterly arrangement was created by direct addition dependent on yearly perceptions from the principal quarter of every year. With the end goal to acquire a proportion of genuine property costs, ostensible property costs were flattened with the CPI. Private property costs may not completely catch the property value advancements, which are important for total bank loaning. Credit totals contain bank loaning to families and endeavors. The fitting proportion of property costs for the exact examination would consequently be total property value record, containing both private and business property costs. For most nations, the accessible business property value information are accessible just in yearly recurrence and speak to just value improvements in the biggest urban territory of the nation. The utilization of these information in observational examination is subsequently very dangerous. In the couple of nations where top notch business property value information are accessible, for example, Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore, private and business property costs are firmly associated, proposing that private property costs may go about as an intermediary at overlooked business property costs in the experimental examination. The transient genuine financing cost is estimated as the three months interbank currency showcase rate less four quarter CPI swelling. The transient genuine currency advertise rate fills in as an intermediary for genuine total financing costs. A more exact measure would be a total loaning rate. Delegate loaning rates are, be that as it may, not accessible for generally nations. Observational proof recommends that loaning rates are attached to currency showcase rates, inferring that currency advertise rates are a legitimate estimate of financing costs. The worldwide money related emergency and obligation blasts A chain of occasions, starting with unforeseen misfortunes in the U.S. subprime contract showcase, was bound to convey the worldwide budgetary framework near crumple and to drag the world economy into subsidence. In the fallout of the Global Financial Crisis somewhere in the range of 2007 and 2009, business analysts have given careful consideration to the job of obligation and use in causing resource showcase rises to frame and crumple. For example, the advantage value swelling and rising influence for the United States exemplified about every one of the indications of a nation nearly a money related emergency to be sure, an extreme one. At that point, we find that advantage advertise breakdown are profound and drawn out. Clearly, the straightforward worldwide saving money framework demonstrates that the fundamental driver of obligation blasts isn't the extensively basically esteemed expenses of ransoming and recapitalizing. Basically, the critical drivers of obligation increments are the unavoidable crumple in assessment incomes that legislatures endure in the wake of profound and delayed yield withdrawals, and in addition regularly goal-oriented countercyclical monetary strategies went for relieving the downturn. Firms' private speculation and resource advertise valuation are adversely connected with their best bank's land introduction. Worldwide firms have an adaptable normal and they can get the use showcase, so there is an entrepreneurial methodology about it. The trademark gigantic developments in government obligation are driven for the most part by sharp falloffs in duty income and, in numerous situations, enormous floods in government spending to battle the retreat, pronounced by Reinhard and Rogoff (2008). The ascent in genuine government obligation in the three years pursues a saving money emergency, having a tendency to detonate with an ascent at a normal of 86% in the significant post-World II scenes (Reinhard and Rogoff, 2008). Utilizing the cash measure of acquiring from the banks is the measure of credit accessible to the firm. Lang, Ofek, and Stulz (1996) locate that future development and speculation are contrarily identified with use, particularly for land firms with high obligation proportions. In the current monetary foundation, the impacts of firms' guarantee misfortunes may likewise rely upon firm use, with profoundly utilized firms contributing less owning to additionally restricting acquiring imperatives. Hofmann (2003) recommends that property value cycles, reflecting changing convictions about future monetary prospects, drive credit cycles, as opposed to unnecessary bank loaning being the reason for property value bubbles. Most resource classes have subsidiary markets. Proficient financial specialists accept that property subsidiaries advertise worked property, and the deleveraged REIT returns are firmly connected to fundamental market. Land put resources into land obligation (in actuality deleveraging), utilize subordinate exchanges for liquidity or utilize long-short exchanging to take positions on market perspectives, and need to purchase land by any stretch of the imagination. Buyer gets minimal effort, broadened returns without alpha. Dealer supports fundamental resources or reinve>GET ANSWER