1. The participation of women in the labor force has been on the rise since 1960. Identify 2 specific reasons for this.
2. Identify 3 reasons why the participation rate of men in the work force has been declining since 1960.
3. Part time jobs are attractive to many workers as well as many employers. Explain.
4. If there were 1.5 million people unemployed in Canada with 15.5 million people employed and a population of 20 million, what would the unemployment rate equal? What would be the participation rate? (When calculating, remember that the unemployment rate is calculated upon the number of people in the labor market while the participation rate is calculated upon the entire population- Refer to Checkpoint 15.1, pg. 404).
5. Assume that the government decides to drastically decrease welfare, social security, and unemployment payments. How would this action change the unemployment rate? How would it change the labor participation rate?
6. Look at Figure 15.5, pg. 414. Explain what the author means by the ‘output gap’ in the 2008-2009 recession.
7. Frictional unemployment is considered to be a “…permanent and healthy phenomenon in a dynamic, growing economy”. Identify 3 different causes of frictional unemployment.
8. Susan Sampson lost her job as a bank teller in the early 1970’s when automatic teller machines were introduced. Identify and define the type of unemployment this would be.
9. Assume that you are the president of the US, and you have the tools necessary to create higher levels of employment among workers in the US.
a. Identify two methods you might use to decrease the unemployment level in the US.
b. Many members of Congress want you to initiate programs that would eliminate unemployment altogether (0% unemployment rate). Explain why you either would or would not initiate programs to eliminate all unemployment.
10. Assume that you have a job working as a buyer for a major department store. Your salary is $100,000 per year as well as another $15,000 in benefits. The economy slips into a recession and you are laid off. After looking for a similar position with similar pay for several months you finally take a job waiting tables in a local restaurant making $36,000 per year including tips. Obviously this is not the job you wanted but must settle for just to pay basic bills. Once you take this job should you be counted as part of the employed labor force? Explain why or why not taking into account the’ discouraged worker’ phenomenon.
11. Identify at least 3 changes in the last decade that have caused structural unemployment.
12. The federal and some state governments have recently increased minimum wage requirements. Why might this actually increase unemployment and leave workers worse off?
13. Assume that you are a member of a labor union which has just bargained with your employer to raise everyone’s wages by 10% and provide full health coverage. What potential harm could this do to the workforce?

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.

 

References

Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.