A) What are the major milestones that represent the health care reform act?
B) Explain how this act helps to deliver better health care services.
C) Explain the reasons why this act has been considered a long and protracted political battle.”
There are few studies that have elucidated the role of subcellular organelles in vegetative and minimally conscious states. However, diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, that have organelle dysfunction sometimes progress into vegetative and minimally conscious states. Alzheimer’s disease is a common type of cortical dementia that is characterized by severe memory impairments and mostly affects people over the age of 65. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in the onset of this disease (Moreira et al., 2010). In healthy individuals, mitochondria are involved in proper neuron function by generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for energy needs and monitoring cellular health. Dysfunctions in mitochondria result in a decreased production of ATP and a released of pro-apoptotic factors (Moreira et al., 2010). Additionally, impaired mitochondria are unable to serve as a intracellular calcium buffer, which is required for calcium homeostasis and neuron function. As a result, cell death and neurodegeneration can occur, which contributes to the loss of cognitive abilities seen in Alzheimer’s patients (Moreira et al., 2010). Due to neurodegeneration, 4-12 years after a patient has been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s, they can progress into a vegetative state (Heston et al., 1977). A study conducted by Jaul et al. revealed that 30.5% of elderly patients with dementia had persistent vegetative state (Jaul et al., 2007). However, a study done by Volicer et al demonstrated that it is unlikely for Alzheimer’s disease to progress into a vegetative state (Volicer et al., 1997). Both studies noted the difficulty in diagnosing patients with Alzheimer’s disease, since the cognitive abilities are not stable and can differ from patient to patient. Additionally, it was suggested that there was a low level of awareness among hospital staff about persistent vegetative state and minimally conscious state in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. These limitations could affect the extent to which the results of the studies can be applied to populations of patient’s with Alzheimer’s disease. Action Potentials>GET ANSWER