Name:_______________________

Statistical Concepts:

• Data Simulation

• Confidence Intervals

• Normal Probabilities

Short Answer Writing Assignment

All answers should be complete sentences.

We need to find the confidence interval for the SLEEP variable. To do this, we need to find the mean and then find the maximum error. Then we can use a calculator to find the interval, (x – E, x + E).

First, find the mean. Under that column, in cell E37, type =AVERAGE(E2:E36). Under that in cell E38, type =STDEV(E2:E36). Now we can find the maximum error of the confidence interval. To find the maximum error, we use the “confidence” formula. In cell E39, type =CONFIDENCE.NORM(0.05,E38,35). The 0.05 is based on the confidence level of 95%, the E38 is the standard deviation, and 35 is the number in our sample. You then need to calculate the confidence interval by using a calculator to subtract the maximum error from the mean (x-E) and add it to the mean (x+E).

1. Give and interpret the 95% confidence interval for the hours of sleep a student gets. (5 points)

Then, you can go down to cell E40 and type =CONFIDENCE.NORM(0.01,E38,35) to find the maximum error for a 99% confidence interval. Again, you would need to use a calculator to subtract this and add this to the mean to find the actual confidence interval.

2. Give and interpret the 99% confidence interval for the hours of sleep a student gets. (5 points)

3. Compare the 95% and 99% confidence intervals for the hours of sleep a student gets. Explain the difference between these intervals and why this difference occurs. (10 points)

4. Find the mean and standard deviation of the DRIVE variable by using =AVERAGE(A2:A36) and =STDEV(A2:A36). Assuming that this variable is normally distributed, what percentage of data would you predict would be less than 40 miles? This would be based on the calculated probability. Use the formula =NORM.DIST(40, mean, stdev,TRUE). Now determine the percentage of data points in the dataset that fall within this range. To find the actual percentage in the dataset, sort the DRIVE variable and count how many of the data points are less than 40 out of the total 35 data points. That is the actual percentage. How does this compare with your prediction? (15 points)

Mean ______________ Standard deviation ____________________

Predicted percentage ______________________________

Actual percentage _____________________________

Comparison ___________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

5. What percentage of data would you predict would be between 40 and 70 and what percentage would you predict would be more than 70 miles? Subtract the probabilities found through =NORM.DIST(70, mean, stdev, TRUE) and =NORM.DIST(40, mean, stdev, TRUE) for the “between” probability. To get the probability of over 70, use the same =NORM.DIST(70, mean, stdev, TRUE) and then subtract the result from 1 to get “more than”. Now determine the percentage of data points in the dataset that fall within this range, using same strategy as above for counting data points in the data set. How do each of these compare with your prediction and why is there a difference? (15 points)

Predicted percentage between 40 and 70 ______________________________

Actual percentage _____________________________________________

Predicted percentage more than 70 miles ________________________________

Actual percentage ___________________________________________

Comparison ____________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

Why? __________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

Placental Function The placenta is an organ that has numerous parts amid the advancement of the baby. One of these capacities is that it goes about as a hindrance to isolate the maternal and fetal surfaces with the end goal that the syncytiotrophoblast surface opens the placenta to the maternal flow and the endothelium is presented to the fetal course. This situation between the two courses implies that the placenta is affected by atoms from both circulatory frameworks, including cytokines, hormones and development factors. The placenta produces atoms which can independently influence the maternal and fetal course and it communicates a substantial number of cytokines including leptin, resistin and tumor corruption factor. Anyway it has been found that these particles are additionally delivered by adipocytes. All particles that are going from the mother to the hatchling need to cross the placenta. Here they are either adjusted, for instance lipids or like glucose, they are used for placental purposes (Desoye et al 2008). The placenta assumes a vital part in fetal development and the direction of pregnancy (Giachini 2008). The placenta demonstrations to support ordinary homeostatic levels and to do the elements of the essential organs. It likewise gives an immunological resistance to the hatchling and permits the trading of particles indispensable to its advancement (Jansson and Taylor 2007). Placental Development Around 4-5 days after origination, the procedure of cleavage causes fast cell divisions and one of the gatherings of cells to frame are called trophoblast cells. Encourage formative procedures shape the blastocyte which is encompassed by an external layer of the trophoblast cells. As the pregnancy advances, the trophoblast cells form into the placenta while the internal parts of the blastocyte frame the incipient organism and umbilical string (Huppertz 2008). The blastocyte inserts itself onto the epithelium of the uterus where it separates into a syncitiotrophoblast which can embed itself in the epithelium prompting it being installed into the decidual part of the uterus (Huppertz 2008). After the connection of the blastocyte, the trophoblast layer partitions rapidly and changes into 2 layers; the inward cytotrophoblastic layer and the external syncytiotrophoblastic mass (Gude et al 2004).The entire implantation process takes 12 days to finish and after this the embryo is completely installed into the endometrial layer (Huppertz 2008). The chorionic plate is the surface of the placenta that faces the embryo and this is the place the umbilical line embeds. The basal plate is the surface that faces the mother which contains numerous sorts of cells including insusceptible cells, for example, macrophages and executioner cells to do the placentas immunological capacity. The maternal basal plate and the fetal chorionic plate meet to frame the smooth chorion which is made out of three layers (Huppertz 2008). At the point when the trophopblast attacks the endothelium there is a redesigning of the uterine spinal conduits which is important to guarantee that the baby and the placenta get a sufficient blood and supplement supply and can evacuate any waste materials. This immediate supply of blood and supplements to the placenta can characterize it as being haemochorial villous organ (Gude et al 2004). After the quick divisions of the trophoblast and advancement into 2 layers there are two pathways that can happen, the villous and extravillious pathways. The extravillious pathway brings about the trophoblast having the capacity to attack into the decidua and cause the rebuilding of the uterine corridors to build blood supply to the placento-fetal unit. The villious pathway has a transportation work and also having endocrine and defensive capacities (Gude et al 2004). Typical Placentation Placentation includes the structure and capacity of the placenta. The procedure of placentation is helped by the structure and course of action of the extracellular network (ECM) of the endometrium. Concentrates on rats actuated with diabetes gave comes about that demonstrated that diabetes affects the dispersion of the ECM atoms. This investigation by Giachini et al delineates that Types I and III collagen and different atoms, for example, proteoglycan particles decorin and biglycan were dispersed all through typical and diabetic placentas. It was demonstrated that diabetes influences the declaration of fibronectin and an expansion in testimony of fibronectin may make changes the ECM structure which could influence the exchange of particles from the mother to the hatchling. One manner by which changes in the ECM can be defeated is to test blood glucose levels as often as possible amid the pregnancy and if kept in ordinary ranges this can significantly diminish the pervasiveness of sicknesses and disarranges exhibit in the baby (Giachini et al 2008). As the pregnancy advances the extent of the placenta builds which likewise implies an expansion in the measure of items that the placenta creates along these lines expanding in the insulin obstruction (Schillan-Koliopoulos and Guadagno 2006). This is on the grounds that the net impact of the results of the placenta is to expand insulin opposition. The expansion in size of the placenta implies that it needs an expanded blood supply. Disappointment of the mother to expand its blood supply to the placenta can prompt placental insuffiency which if exacerbated can be ascribed to be a reason for intrauterine development confinement (IUGR). This development confinement is more identified with poor maternal nourishment as opposed to a reason for GDM. GDM have been related with an expanded fetal and placental weight (Jansson and Taylor 2007). One reason why GDM and expanded insulin opposition influences the baby is that while glucose can cross the placenta, insulin can't. This implies the fetal pancreas needs to repay by creating more insulin to forestall high blood glucose levels. The fetal pancreas can do this and the liver reacts to the more elevated amounts of insulin by expanding its creation of glucose (Schillan-Koliopoulos and Guadagno 2006). Posterity who have an expansion in birth weight have been appeared to be in danger of creating cardiovascular malady and diabetes sometime down the road. The primary hazard factor for this is poor exchange of supplements by means of the placenta (Jansson and Taylor 2007). How emotional these progressions are relies upon how great the control of blood glucose levels have been amid the advancement of the placenta, if any treatment has been gotten and if there were any times of far from typical glucose levels (Desoye 2006). How does diabetes influence Placentation? Diabetic affront toward the start of the pregnancy can have long last impacts of the placenta. One of the parts of the placenta is that it can support abundance maternal glucose which can keep the fetal glucose levels inside range However in the event that the affront endures longer than the placenta can adjust for then intemperate fetal development may happen (Desoye Mouzon 2007). In diabetes there is endothelial brokenness which can prompt vascular sickness. The endothelial cells help to control the vascular tone of the smooth muscle covering the vasculature. They do this by delivering substances that assistance to vasodilate the smooth muscle including Nitric Oxide, Prostacyclin and Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarising Factor (EDHF). There have been a few examinations to propose distinctive components of how diabetes influences the endothelium including disabled arrival of these vasodilating atoms, issues with flag transduction and expanded arrival of choking middle people of the endothelium. The brokenness of the endothelium in diabetes is believed to be caused by actuation of protein kinase C (PKC) and in addition expanded oxidative pressure, non-enzymatic glycation and an expanded enactment of the polyol pathway (De Vries et al 2000).The primary motivation behind why these impacts happen is believed to be expected the initiation of the protein kinase C pathway and the expanded oxidative pressure. This can make early harm the improvement of vascular vessels (Roberts and Raspollini 2008). These systems will be talked about later.>

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