Submit only one file in pdf format to the link on the Study Desk.
Assume that your report will be read by someone familiar with the data sets but with limited statistical knowledge. Fully explain plots and when stating statistics or results explain what they mean statistically AND in context of the data.
Presentation should be neat, consistent, spell-checked and proof read. All questions should be clearly labelled and all answers should clearly and concisely address the questions.
If you convert a Word document to pdf for submission check that all symbols, equations etc. have converted correctly, i.e., proof-read your work.
If you do not use knitr to compile your submission, where asked to provide R code, paste relevant code within the assignment document and italicise (or otherwise highlight or distinguish from other content). Do not include code in an appendix.
Do not include an appendix at all. Any work included in an appendix will not be marked.
Please note that referencing text books and other resources is not the goal of this assessment. This work requires students to demonstrate their understanding of the analysis and interpretation, not provide quotes from resources.
When interpreting output, you are expected to do so in context of the data and the method (i.e. ensure you comment on aspects of the method that affect your interpretation with the respect to the variables and sample).
A maximum of 10 marks will be deducted from your total marks for poor presentation.
Question 1 CCA: 25
Question 2 FA: 20
Question 3 MDS: 20
Question 4 DFA: 30
Question 5 reflection: 5
Data: Only one data set will be used for all questions in this assignment.
The data file ‘jobsat.txt’ contains data measuring three job satisfaction variables and three job characteristic variables for 70 employees of a large corporation. The sex of each employee and the years of their employment within the company were also recorded.
Three measures of job satisfaction:
• career: employee satisfaction with career direction and the possibility of future advancement, expressed as a percent
• supervisor: employee satisfaction with supervisor’s communication and management style, expressed as a percent
• finance: employee satisfaction with salary and other benefits, using a scale measurement from 1 to 10 (1=unsatisfied, 10=satisfied)
Three variables associated with job characteristic:
• variety: degree of variety involved in tasks, expressed as a percent
• feedback: degree of feedback required in job tasks, expressed as a percent
• autonomy: degree of autonomy required in job tasks, expressed as a percent
• male: 1
• female: 2
• <5 years: 1
• 5-10 years: 2
• >10 years: 3
Assume all job satisfaction variables and job characteristic variables meet MVN and other test assumptions for the purpose of these exercises.
Question 1 (25 marks):
Explore the relationship between the job satisfaction and job characteristic sets of variables by completing the following:
(a) Based on standardised variables produce and comment on a pairwise correlation matrix for the six variables of interest. Does this correlation matrix suggest that canonical correlation would be an appropriate form of analysis and why? (3 marks)
(b) Perform a canonical correlation using the set of job characteristic variables (standardised) as the X variables and the job satisfaction variables (standardised) as the
Y variables. Provide appropriate output, definitions and interpretations for: (10 marks)
• canonical correlations (also explain why canonical correlations become successively weaker but do not add up to one).
• chi-square test of significance and Rao’s F approximation significance test
• redundancy coefficients for the variance in the Y set of variables explained by the variance in the X set.
[Note: ‘appropriate’ requires you to select the appropriate parts of the output from your analysis to address each dot-point – do not include all R output].
(c) Provide the equations that describe the first canonical function using your analysis solution. Interpret the canonical loadings and the value of the analysis overall. (6 marks)
(d) Provide the output showing the eigen values and interpret. Explain the relationship between eigen values and canonical correlations. (2 marks)
(e) Why is canonical correlation an appropriate technique for this analysis and not multiple regression or MANOVA? (2 marks)
(f) What are the limitations associated with canonical correlation analysis? (2 marks)
Question 2 (20 marks):
(a) Perform PCA analysis on all six of the job satisfaction and job characteristic variables. Include in your answer: (5 marks)
• A brief explanation of your choice between the correlation and covariance matrix as the basis of the PCA analysis
• Justification for your choice of the number of PCs to use in factor analysis
(b) Perform a Factor Analysis on all six variables (apply no rotation) using the number of factors identified in part a). Interpret the output, in particular: (8 marks)
• Interpret the variable loadings, the variance explained and the chi-square test.
• Discuss the difference in uniqueness values for the variables finance and autonomy.
(c) Repeat the FA with a varimax rotation. In addition, calculate the communalities. Interpret the output, comparing to output from part b) and discussing the communality of the variable career and how it is reflected in the factor loading. (7 marks)
Question 3 (20 marks):
Note: for the plots required in this question you may not have been given example code in the course materials for all aspects of the plot details. You are required to problem solve these plotting code issues for yourself – look for solutions online/google. Some trial and error will be required. Do not ask for solutions on the course forum.
Use metric MDS to determine if employees form clusters based on sex and years by completing the following:
(a) Perform metric 2D MDS ordination based on Euclidian distances for the six standardised measurement variables. Provide the Goodness of Fit (GoF) output only. Plot the results, identifying employees by sex using open circles for males and solid squares for females. Include a legend. Interpret the plot and include interpretation of the GoF output. What happens to the GoF if another dimension is added to the analysis? (6 marks)
(b) Repeat the plot in part (a), but instead identify employees by years employed in the plot space. In addition, colour each number: red for year 1, blue for year 2 and dark green for year 3. Interpret in context of the data and the method. (6 marks)
Hint: Use colors() to find names of colours to use in code.
(c) What is the Euclidian distance between employee 2 and 4 from your original distance matrix from part a)? Prove this distance mathematically based on the original data. (4 marks)
(d) Why can’t the influential variables along each dimension be identified and suggest other methods that may achieve this. (4 marks)
Question 4 (30 marks):
Determine if the years of employment can be predicted by an employee’s response to all of the job satisfaction and job characteristic variables.
(a) Produce and interpret pair-wise scatter plots for all six of the job satisfaction and job characteristic variables, distinguishing between years using colour. (4 marks)
(b) Training and test sets should be used with a 75/25 split and you must provide the seed value used in your code. Use the table function in R to provide the number of employees in each year for both the training and test sets that you have constructed. (6 marks)
(c) Perform a DFA. Explain why there are only two DFs calculated. Provide output, definition and interpretation (in context of the data and method) for: (10 marks)
• the prior probabilities
• the trace values
• the weightings on LD1 and LD2
(d) Based on the DFA, predict year membership and create and interpret a table showing observed vs predicted for the test set. Create an x-y plot of the two DFs grouped by the
original year labels and another by the predicted year labels. Indicate on the 2nd plot the employees who were misclassified. (10 marks)
Question 5 (5 marks)
Write 100 to 300 words explaining whether any of these forms of analysis have helped your understanding of the data. Do not restate results.
Consider each and every existent speculation, strategies, and standards for surveying and controlling clinical data according to the moved learning of time and place. The need to identify with no specific theory, with an open standpoint and unendingly investigate distinctive roads in regards to those subtle elements and frameworks that convey triumphs. This particular speculation consolidates two certain subjects. The first of those subject is that people and all crises are stand-out and unmistakable, hence can apply to anyone and any kind of culture. Additionally, all people and all crises are equivalent. Therefore, James and Gilliland (2013) fathoms that these doubts are seen as absolutely random. The blended approach, as showed by James and Gilliland (2013) allow to different systems and theories, in this way, it empowers the possibility of having the ability to assess the loss' needs remembering the ultimate objective to apply and outline the best possible methodologies altered to the person. The pro, on the other hand, will put it all on the line and will have the energy to change an approach to manage another strategy paying little mind to whether the first had work. Regardless, the Interpersonal theory in a general sense illuminates that people can not bolster an individual state of a crisis for long, in case they really believe in themselves and in others. Having sureness, the individual will end up self-acknowledged and crush the crisis (James and Gilliland, 2013). Crandall, Parnell and Spillan (2014) cleared up that the essential goal of the crisis organization gathering, CMT is to get ready for potential crises and manage those crises that over the long haul happen. Along these lines, it will be seen in three perspectives, crisis response affiliations and review their association between affiliations. Moral and legitimate troubles. Crandall, Parnell and Spillan (2014) gave a cognizance of the centrality of good and legitimate obligations and challenges while overseeing affiliations and their social limits. The ethical culture of the affiliations most by far of time is being defective because of the unscrupulous direct performed by its specialists, and paying little personality to their made code out of ethics. For example, outlandish targets of affiliations, may lead specialists to far fetched essential initiative. In this way, specialists may feel, that they should cause in exploitative lead to get the target by undermining various leveled techniques (Crandall, Parnell and Spillan, 2014). On the other hand, moral standards are not considered to have true blue weight just, according to James and Gilliland (2013); elucidates that the Eclectic Crisis Intervention Theory includes an intentional and proficient particularly planned authentic thoughts and philosophies to help the losses from different approachs. This particular theory begins filling in as a task masterminded speculation, instead of using thoughts. A couple of significant endeavors perceived in this theory are: Recognize segments in all structures and to consolidate them into an inside solid whole giving a more correct behavioral data to be cleared up. Consider each and every existent theory, procedures, and standards for evaluating and controlling clinical data as demonstrated by the impelled learning of time and place. The need to identify with no specific theory, with an open viewpoint and diligently investigate diverse roads in regards to those definitions and systems that convey triumphs. This particular theory facilitates two unpreventable subjects. The first of those theme is that people and all crises are fascinating and unmistakable, hence can apply to anyone and any kind of culture. Likewise, all people and all crises are similar. Thusly, James and Gilliland (2013) fathoms that these suppositions are seen as on a very basic level inconsequential. The differed approach, according to James and Gilliland (2013) allow to different procedures and theories, in like manner, it empowers the shot of having the ability to assess the setback's needs remembering the ultimate objective to apply and outline the best possible techniques tweaked to the person. The consultant, on the other hand, will put it all on the line and will have the status to change an approach to manage another procedure paying little heed to whether the first had work. Regardless, the Interpersonal theory for the most part illuminates that people can not bolster an individual state of a crisis for long, if they really confide in themselves and in others. Having conviction, the individual will wind up self-acknowledged and overcome the crisis (James and Gilliland, 2013). Crandall, Parnell and Spillan (2014) cleared up that the focal target of the crisis organization gathering, CMT is to get ready for potential crises and manage those crises that over the long haul happen. Along these lines, it will be seen in three points of view, crisis response affiliations and study their association between affiliations. Moral and genuine challenges. Crandall, Parnell and Spillan (2014) gave an understanding of the hugeness of good and real obligations and challenges while overseeing affiliations and their social limits. The ethical culture of the affiliations most of time is being defective because of the deceitful lead performed by its laborers, and paying little personality to their made code out of ethics. For example, impossible targets of affiliations, may lead delegates to unrealistic fundamental administration. Thus, laborers may feel, that they should realize in unscrupulous direct to obtain the target by undermining definitive strategies (Crandall, Parnell and Spillan, 2014). On the other hand, moral checks are not considered to have true blue weight just, according to James and Gilliland (2013); notwithstanding the way that these standards issues are revolved more around overseeing codes of practices to the calling. Encroachment of these codes can and will lead any master to be chasten or may lose their allow summoned by the calling's ethics board. As demonstrated by Reyes and Jacobs (2006) cleared up that the technique encourages and vanquish multicultural limits and challenges, for instance, lingo, feelings, collaborations, and practicality. In addition, it may reduce charges of social absence of care. An instance of this may be take a gander at when as an affiliation does not confidence in tremendous religious events, and their delegates must present themselves to work, against their feelings and the affiliation. Affiliations must make standard good lead rules, which must execute ethics trainings in order to include moral issues and how they may react to the crisis (Crandall, Parnell and Spillan, 2014). Moral principles may have a huge and varied wisdom, affiliations and moreover individuals accessible as needs be must be set aside their feelings remembering the true objective to reach and help the crisis. Thusly, engaging adjusting rehearses unsurprising to the person's feelings, and customs empower ethics minorities to grasp the organization and retouching process (Reyes and Jacobs, 2006). All through the technique of crisis organization and the general population available to come back to work, ends up essential to get a handle on what their part is in this method with a particular true objective to give the best possible social help to the affiliation and its staff in require. Before long, as demonstrated by Crandall, Parnell and Spillan (2014) there are a couple of suggestions or tenets that may better good culture codes that can improve profoundly the educator execution when there are multicultural challenges or obstacles when regulating and responding to crises. One of these recommendations may keep up a vital separation from, when an exploitative lead is found. For this circumstance, the affiliation must respond instantly to correct the condition and prepare the person accountable for the direct get against the ethical tenets codes. Another proposal to beat rehearses that dismissal moral, honest to goodness and multicultural troubles or deterrents, is enrolling a manager, officer or head of ethics. This individual obligations as an officer, supervisor or official which would serve in top organization or overseeing body, who moreover will reply to the most outrageous level of the affiliation whether this is an open or private one. This position will propel the ethical standards of the affiliation and what's more its lifestyle; ensuring the specialists direct along keeping an eye on their stresses and needs. In a tantamount situation, Crandall, Parnell and Spillan (2014) prescribed that directors, official or presidents should require to have down to earth destinations. These targets are successfully thoroughly considered, something different, nonsensical goals enables exploitative decision and in this manner lead among laborers. Along this proposition, top organization or authority boss, may give a hotline number and in addition email in which laborers have a man or division inside their affiliation that they can trust and to whom they can report dishonest practices or good encroachment keep up its order. This specific proposition may help agents to report any kind of tricky direct that they or another specialist may defy. Finally, moral issues rose inside relationship in light of fragile good guidelines or non-existent codes. The scene investigation of affiliations and undertakings must perceive and uncover moral inadequacies which are shortcoming centers inside the system. Along these lines, the affiliations and endeavors need to hoist musings inside to create an improved good atmosphere. Finally, the affiliations and ventures in their learning stages may progress upgrading the ethical execution all through the experiences of specific crisis events. >GET ANSWER