12. Why is probability sampling useful (explain in three sentences)? (4 pts)
13. Define systematic random sampling approach (explain in three sentences) (4 pts)
14. Construct potential hypotheses or research questions to relate the variables in each of the following examples. Also, write a brief statement explaining why you believe there is a relationship between variables as specified in your hypotheses. I’ve provided you one example. (6 pts)
Example: Respondent’s age and support for legalization of marijuana
Younger adults are more likely to support the legalization of marijuana than older adults.
a. Income and race
b. The crime rate and the number of police in a city
c. Life satisfaction and marital status
15. Determine whether each of the following variables are discrete or continuous. I’ve provided you one example below: (6 pts)
Example: The number of people in your family: Discrete
a. Place of residence classified as urban, suburban, or rural
b. The percentage of university students who attended public high school
c. The rating of the overall quality of a textbook, on a scale from “Excellent” or “Poor”
d. The type of transportation a person takes to work (e.g. bus, walk, car)
e. Your annual income
f. The Canadian unemployment rate
16. Variable can be measured according to more than one level of measurement. For the following variables, identify at least two levels of measurement (6 pts).
Example: Number of children
Two levels of measurement: This variable could be measured in several ways. As an ordinal measure, the number of children could be measured in categories: 0, 1–2, 3–4, 5 or more. This could also be a nominal measurement—do you have children? Yes or No
b. Student performance
c. Attitude toward abortion
Statistical Analysis Section (50 pts)
A fictional dataset measures poverty in 99 villages, towns and cities in Ontario in 2012. These locations are either in the rural, micropolitan, or metropolitan areas of Ontario. The important variables are:
Pov100: the percentage of population living below poverty line in each city, town or village
cbsa: ‘1’ = rural, ‘2’ = micropolitan or ‘3’ = metropolitan areas.
unemp: the percent unemployed in each city, town, or village.
Following are the descriptive statistics for Pov100:
Q17 a. Interpret the median and mean for the variable Pov100. Discuss what these values tell you about the “average” poverty rate in Ontario. (6 pts)