Answer the following questions based on the readings. Each answer should not be longer than 250 words (use the word count function under “tools”). 1. On the basis of the “Tribute of Children” and the “Turkish Letters” explain how the Ottoman system of slavery worked. What were its advantages/disadvantages (if any)? 2. On the basis of “The Age of Akbar/Religion at Akbars Court,” explain Akbar’s religious policy. Was it Islamic or not? 3. On the basis of the Hatt-i Sherif Decree of 1839, what were the ideological bases of the Ottoman Tanzimat? Part Two: Essay (40 points) Answer one of the following. Your essay should be no longer than 600 words (use the word count function under “tools”). Make sure your essay has an introduction with a clear thesis or argument, a body which supports the thesis with evidence drawn from the readings, and a conclusion which summarizes your argument. 1. How did the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires deal with the issue of religious diversity between the 15th and 18th centuries? Was one more successful than the others? Why or why not? 2. Why did the major Islamic empires experience decline in the 17th and 18th centuries? Were the causes external, internal, or a combination of both? 3. Compare the state reform projects of Egypt and the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century. In what ways were they comparable and in what ways different?
Shipman started rehearsing as a specialist in 1974, at the Abraham Ormerod Medical Practice in Todmorden. He was there until the point when 1975 when his accomplices found that he had been acquiring drugs deceptively for his very own utilization. In 1976 he confessed to three offenses of acquiring pethidine by misleading, three offenses of unlawful ownership of pethidine and two further offenses of producing a solution he was condemned in Halifax Magistrates court to pay a fine and remuneration. In August 1992,he started filling in as a performance professional at a medical procedure in Hyde he kept on functioning as an independent specialist until his capture in September 1998. In July 1998 the Greater Manchester Police started an investigation into Kathleen Grundy's demise, a patient of Dr Shipman, the request was quickly extended to incorporate the passings of Shipman's different patients. On Monday, 31st January 2000 the jury at Preston Crown Court sentenced Harold Shipman for 15 murders and of manufacturing a will. Contextual analysis Mrs Kathleen Grundy was a dowager and lived independent from anyone else she was in surprisingly great wellbeing for her age. She attempted work for some Charitable associations and had a solid public activity. She spent the night prior to her passing with a companion and was in typical wellbeing when she went home. Mrs Grundy kicked the bucket on 24th June 1998 at 81 years old. Shipman fashioned a declaration and go of her demise being because of maturity. Later logical investigation of her body tissues in August 1998 demonstrated that she had kicked the bucket of morphine harming. In the few days before her demise, Shipman had influenced Mrs Grundy to participate in an examination venture into the maturing procedure, purportedly to be directed by Manchester University. It developed later this was a trick so he could get an example of her mark, which he utilized trying to manufacture a will. This additionally made a reason to visit her at home. She visited him on 23rd June, to have her ears syringed and revealed to her that he required a blood test for the exploration venture which must be taken at a young hour early in the day. He masterminded to visit her at about 8.30am the following morning. The next day she was expected to go to Werneth House however she didn't arrive. Companions and associates there ended up worried as this was abnormal for Mrs Grundy and two of them, Mr John Green and Mr Ronald Pickford, went to her home at about early afternoon. They discovered her lying on the couch completely dressed. Her body was cool and it was built up she was dead. The way to the house was opened. They gathered Shipman to the house. Following a cursory examination of the body, he said 'heart failure', following the test he had a short dialog with somebody in the coroner's office and it was concurred that a declaration which expressed the reason for death to be 'maturity' would be satisfactory. There was no record kept of the discussion with the coroner's office. At the point when Shipman had gone out Mr Green educated the police, as he was not able contact Mrs Grundy's little girl Mrs Angela Woodruff. The officers concerned addressed Shipman later and he educated them he had approached Mrs Grundy before that day since she had been unwell. He didn't make reference to the way that he had called to take a blood test. Shipman additionally revealed to them he had talked with the coroner's office and would issue an endorsement expressing that Mrs Grundy had kicked the bucket of regular causes. The cops investigated the body and on observing nothing suspicious made no further move. The day after the passing Shipman addressed Mrs Woodruff. He revealed to her that he had seen Mrs Grundy on the day preceding her passing only for 'a standard thing'. He was dubious and made reference to she had chest torments potentially because of heartburn. Shipman said that he had organized to gather a blood test the following morning, when he arrived she was not yet dressed. He at that point said that some elderly individuals whine of feeling unwell a couple of days before they kick the bucket and after that simply pass on. He gathered this had happened to Mrs Grundy. He given Mrs Woodruff the Medical Certificate of Cause of Death (MCCD) and said that he had guaranteed the passing as being because of maturity. Mrs Woodruff's doubts were not excited until the point when she was reached by the Hamilton Ward lawful firm dealing with her mom's will. Her own law hone in Warwickhad more often than not managed her mom's legitimate issues. The first will had been held up with the firm in 1986. Hamilton Ward got another will that day that Mrs Grundy passed on. The new will was seriously composed. Mrs Woodruff told the Shipman preliminary in October: "My mom was a fastidiously clean individual. The possibility of her marking a report which is so severely composed didn't bode well. The mark looked weird, it looked too enormous. The idea of mum marking a report leaving everything to her specialist was unbelievable." The police organized the exhumation of Mrs Grundy's body. The exhumation was essential in light of the fact that legal proof was expected to confirm the instance of death. Dr Rutherford a specialist witness pathologist was told to direct the posthumous examination. The after death was vital as it would build up time and reason for death, one would likewise know whether Shipman's variant of occasions are valid. The aftereffects of the posthumous examination found no common clarification for Mrs Grundy's passing in this way not supporting Shipman's record. Likewise questions that were left unanswered for instance why had this transpired who had been healthy, had been replied. Logical examination of the body tissues uncovered levels of morphine steady with the organization of a deadly portion. Dr John Grenville additionally gave a report and said that there were various false passages in the restorative records which had been made after the demise to offer validity to Shipman's accounts. Initially that Mrs Grundy was sick when he saw her on 23rd June and besides that Mrs Grundy had been mishandling drugs and may have controlled the morphine herself. This proof was exceptionally important as it demonstrated medicinal records had been doctored with the end goal to cover Shipman's back. Legal proof demonstrated that Shipman manufactured Mrs Grundy's will this was one of the primary reasons with respect to why doubts were stirred in any case. Shipman needed to acquire the entire of Mrs Grundy's bequest, leaving nothing to her little girl and grandkids. He drafted the will utilizing his own out-dated Brother compact . At the point when the police went to Shipman's premises and claimed the the will was promptly connected to him. This was vital as tests would have the capacity to demonstrate that if the will had been created from Shipman's sort author the paper could be coordinated and in addition the ink and tracks that had been utilized, this proof would be sufficient to demonstrate that it had originated from that particular printer. Despite the fact that this proof was important shipman could in any case contend that another person had utilized his sort author. Generally the last item looked meticulously amateurish and doubt would be stirred instantly. Master hand composing proof turned out to be fabrications. Shipman fashioned Mrs Grundy's signature and dated the will ninth June 1998. On that day he arranged a 'marking and seeing' occasion in his counseling room and probably arranged a report for Mrs Grundy to sign which indicated to accommodate her agree to partake in some restorative research evidently to be led by Manchester University. This record necessitated that Mrs Grundy's mark ought to be seen by two others, who additionally needed to sign and give their names, locations and occupations. While Mrs Grundy was at Shipman's medical procedure on ninth June, Shipman seems to have gotten her mark on this report and after that called two patients from his holding up room into the counseling room where they finished and marked the observers' a piece of the archive. Shipman more likely than not utilized this report to duplicate the three marks and he could. The report would have been profitable to shipman as he had no different methods for taking a gander at Mrs Grundy's mark. Scientific proof demonstrated the Shipman had fashioned the signature as it didn't coordinate the style of Mrs Grundy's composition and it was explicitly evident that it was a duplicate due the way that Shipman needed to sever as he continued taking a gander at the first signature to duplicate it, it was additionally noticed that the mark Shipman produced was dispense greater than how Mrs Grundy would ordinarily sign. There were clear ends drawn from the Forensic proof as the posthumous that Mrs Grundy's passing was an unmistakable instance of morphine harming. Indeed, even without this proof there were various inquiries that did not make any sense for example this was a sudden passing of an elderly individual healthy. There was no clarification for her demise. Mrs Grundy's entryway was opened this was additionally bizarre for her as her neighbors specified the way that she was a security cognizant individual, Shipman suggested that Mr's Grundy left the entryway opened subsequent to letting him out this essential bit of proof was a noteworthy hit to shipman's case as he had been not able leave the security framework in the condition relatives and companions would have anticipated that it would be. Despite the fact that Shipman had modified Mrs Grundy's therapeutic records to demonstrate she was unwell just before her demise and that he speculated she had been mishandling drugs her restorative records still indicated she had been healthy and had no conceivably lethal conditions that would hurt her. Likewise the reason for death being 'maturity', left unanswered inquiry and was a significant unseemly instance of death for a man who had been in such great wellbeing. On the 31st January 2000, following six days of pondering the jury discovered Shipman liable of killing 15 patients by deadly infusions of diamorphine, and manufacturing the desire of Kathleen Grundy. He was condemned to 15 successive life sentences and it was prescribed that he never be discharged. Shipman additionally gotten four yea>GET ANSWER