Suppose you are planning to buy a house using a 30 years mortgage financing.
Which house would you like to buy? What is its price? If you provide 20% down payment, what will be the approximate amount needed to complete the transaction, including closing costs?
How would you set up the timeline for this problem? What are the calculator keystrokes or excel formula for solving this problem?
What is the loan amount for the mortgage problem? What mortgage interest rate can you get? What will be the monthly payment? How much of that is interest and how much is principal repayment in the 1st and 2nd month?
How much principal amount will be remaining after the 85th payment?
Understanding Time Value of Money
What do you understand by the term time value of money? What do you feel about it? What are some of the reasons that money has a time value?
e were studied Pf dominate area, Odisha alone contribute 47.8 % of total Pf case reported in the country followed by 14.8% in Chhattisgarh, 6.3% in Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh is contributing 6.0% of Pf cases (NVBDCP 2013). Our data showed the higher frequency (71.9%) of double mutation at codon C59R and S108N in pfdhfr gene in study sites. Double mutation in the different geographical region and transmission zones are showed the divers frequency i.e Madhya Pradesh (97.5%) followed by Chhattisgarh (75.4%), Jharkhand (64.8%) and Odisha (46.5%).This data suggest that double mutations at codon 59R+108N is indicating that lower level of PYR drug resistance is existing in the Indian pollution. Triple mutation in the combination of N51I+C59R+S108N or C59R+S108N+I164L is indictor of high levels of PYR, our data showed that only 2.4% triple mutation population in the studies samples ( Basco at el.,1998&2000). The high transmission rate will lead to higher genetic variation. This would also lead to the emergence of more and more drug resistance genotypes and, and faster spread of PYR resistance in these states. Resistance in SDX in P. falciparum is connected with mutations in pfdhps at codons; 436A/F, 437G, 540E, 581G, and 613S [Ahmad et ai.,2006]. The pfdhps mutation at codon A436 reduce the affinity in of SDX binding followed by sequential mutations at G437, E540, G581, and T/S613 which may cause increase in SDX resistance [Lumb et al.,2011], In dhps mutation we saw six variants, over wild type. In contrast, most of the P. falciparum isolates (41.2%) exposed a single haplotype (540E) for pfdhps gene followed by 437 and 436 and no mutation detected at codons 581 and 613. Recently studies in Jalpaiguri, India has shown 9.5% failure rate in AS’WHO, and was due to SP failure because of mutations in pfdhfr(I51+R59+N108), with pfdhps(G437+E540)(Saha et al., 2012). Subsequently, high treatment failures rate( more than cutoff levels) in AS+SP regimen was observed in Northeastern states (Tripura, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh) of India because higher mutation frequency in dhfr and dhps genes, in 2013, artemether lumifentrine (AL) was used first line treatment of uncomplicated Pf case in this region (Mishra et al,2014, NVBDCP-2013). Quintuple mutations in combination of dhfr-dhps gene including pfdhfr three codons (108 + 51 + 59) and two pfdhps codons (437G+ 540E) was a strong indicator of SP treatment failure (Ngoma at el.,2011), its combination was not seen our studies, it mean partner drug (SP) efficacy in this region working fine in the combination of AS+SP. Pre-indication of treatment failure was not there in this region. The correlation study revealed higher mutation frequency (96%) in pfcrt at codon K76T in patients with residual levels of CQ on day 0 as compared to those patients not having residual levels of CQ before enrollment (74.6%). The samples with residual levels of CQ more than mi>GET ANSWER