As you can see, each theory makes certain assumptions about the origins of personality. Depending on the theory, the focus can be on unconscious motivators, unmet needs, social forces, acceptance by your parents, biology, or your predominant tendencies or traits. If you find yourself following only one particular theory or approach, you might develop tunnel vision. You might miss observations, inferences, and conclusions that don’t fit the assumptions of your chosen theory. That is why it is important to be aware of more than one theory, while acknowledging how they compare and contrast. Understanding the differences between theories will allow you to acknowledge the strengths and weaknesses of each theory. It will also allow you to think of the person on different levels.

For this assignment, you will compare and contrast two personality theories or approaches from the personality theory list. For example, humanistic psychology and psychoanalytic theory are almost polar opposites so these are easier to contrast, yet there are some commonalities, too. The choice of which two personalities or approaches to compare is up to you. This milestone prepares you for Project One, due in Module Six.

Personality Theories and Approaches
Humanistic psychology
Psychoanalytic theory
Neo-Freudian/object relations theory
Trait approach
Biological perspective
Motivation
Prompt
To begin your milestone, first select two personality theories from the list provided that you think contrast in meaningful ways. Next, use your Project One Milestone Template Word Document to address the following rubric criteria:

Identify which two theories or approaches you will compare and contrast and explain why you chose them. Your response should be about 2 to 4 sentences.
Describe how your two chosen theories differ by selecting 3 topics from A through G below. Your response for each topic should be about 3 to 5 sentences.
Scientific nature
Do the theories you selected differ on their scientific nature? Is one theory more scientific? Consider the techniques used to collect information and devise theories.
Justify your response.
Nature versus nurture
Do the theories you selected differ on the roles of nature versus nurture? Does one theory favor one role to a greater degree than the other? Or is one more neutral in regard to the role of nature and nurture?
Justify your response.

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.

 

References

Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.