- Have you personally witnessed a crisis in your organization?
- When did your leaders determine the situation was entering chaos?
- How can decision-makers anticipate, prevent, and limit and control chaos?
- How can managers ensure organizational character during a crisis?
to the enhancement of women’s capacity for strategic choice and agency in the sphere of the economy and to the possibilities this opens up for change in other spheres of their lives’. Question of how this is measured (i.e. the degree of agency, choice, etc.) – and who does and sets the measurement – is important. What does a woman who is economically empowered ‘look like’ in comparison to one who is considered not empowered; can direct comparisons be made within different contexts? Many of the barriers that are considered to hinder women’s economic empowerment exist across borders, but experiences of them differ. There are a number of other interesting socio-economic inequalities (such as race, class, etc.) that contextualise the specific differences of experience. Therefore, women’s economic empowerment cannot be conceptualised by thinking of women as a homogeneous group. To move forward with the second half of discussion, if women’s economic empowerment broadly relates to women’s choice and agency in relation to the economy, it is important to first briefly consider the contemporary context of the economy. Since the late 1970s, there has been a paradigm shift towards neoliberal ideologies, which have turbo-charged globalisation. Expressed through the Structural Adjustment Programmes and the Washington Consensus policies throughout the 1980s/90s, these policies promoted global economic integration and interdependence. Such macroeconomic conditions were governed through the expansion of markets beyond national borders; rapid formation of multilateral companies; technology advances; and transformation of the way production processes are organised (Berería, Berik, Floro, 2016: 93). On the back of this, there has been a striking increase in women’s global labour force participation (Berería et al, 2016: 112), which is viewed as a core strategy to achieve economic empowerment. Mainstream economic growth narratives have been keen to highlight that the contemporary global division of labour (in waged work) is moving towards increased opportunities to empower women. Export-orientated development (the dominant economic gro>GET ANSWER