Write a pathogen report and Each report should address one bacterial microorganism, fungal organism, protozoan Protist, animal helminth, or virus (either DNA or RNA).

A. Bacterial Organisms:

1) Scientific Name:
Staphylococcus epidermidis

2) Description: (morphology, Gram reaction or Acid fastness, motility, culture characteristics and optimum temperature for growth)
• coccus occurring singly or in pairs
• Gram positive
• nonmotile
• colonies are circular, smooth and opaque: blood agar colonies show beta hemolysis: broth cultures are turbid, becoming clear and characterized by a yellowish ring and sediment
• 37oC (incubation)
• facultative anaerobic

3) Portal of Entry and Incubation Period:
• inhalation or ingestion of…
• in 7 to 10 days
• insect bites (vectors such as…)
• sexual intercourse

4) Pathogenicity and Symptoms:
• normal flora of the…; opportunist
• invasive or noninvasive
• typhoid fever: systemic infection originating in the gastrointestinal tract involving intestinal inflammation; enters the blood and travels…
• common infections are…
• severe infections include…characterized by…
• acute or chronic features
• toxins involved
• carrier state (if applicable)

5) Treatment:
• penicillin treatment of infections
• vaccine of heat-killed phase 1 organisms

6) Other comments:
• endemic to the Mississippi Valley
• hemolysis type (streptococcus)
• coagulase type (staphylococcus)
• historical background
• wild animal populations serve as the reservoir for…
7) Case Study:

B. Fungal Organisms:

1) Scientific Name(s):
• Histoplasma capsulatum

2) Description: (morphology; culture characteristics, and optimum growing temperature)
• yeast or diphasic type

3) Mycoses Category:
• superficial, cutaneous, subcutaneous, systemic, or opportunistic

4) Portal of Entry:

5) Pathogenicity and Symptoms:
• blastomycosis seen as…

6) Treatment:

7) Other comments:
• geographical distribution
• high incidence with AIDS patients

8) Case Study:

C. Protozoans:

1) Scientific Name:
• Giardia lamblia

2) Taxonomy & Descriptive Classification:
• hemoflageilate, * amoebas, * ciliate, * sporozoan, * locomotion by.
• Phylum Apicomplexa (haemosporina)

3) Morphology of Life Cycle Stages (detailed):
• trophozoite is a pear shaped flagellate…
• cyst is…

4) Infective Stage For Humans and Portal of Entry:
• ingested cyst…. via contaminated….
• vectors, if involved, are… Tsetse fly, etc…

5) Pathogenicity and Symptoms: (disease name)
• trypanosomiasis characterized by…
• toxins produced…
• enteritis and diarrhea

6) Diagnosis:
• identification of cysts in formed stools
• biopsy of tissue…
• blood smear
• vaginal discharge

7) Treatment:

8) Other comments:
• definitive, intermediate hosts, if applicable:
• Trypanosoma: humans and domestic livestock are definitive; tsetse fly is intermediate

9) Case Study:

D. Helminths:

1) Scientific Name:
• Taenia solium

2) Descriptive Classification and Common Name:
• Nematode
• Platyhelminth (Cestode, Trematode)
• roundworm, hookworm, liver fluke, tapeworm (beef or pork), pinworm, etc.

3) Morphology (ova and/or larval stage, adult) of Life Cycle Stages:
• ova has characteristic lid-like dome at one end and a small knob at the other end
• cysticercus…

4) Definitive Host/Intermediate Host (BE PERCISE):
• human is definitive host via metacercaria in raw freshwater fish
• sheep, cattle, and occasionally humans serve as intermediate hosts

5) Portal of Entry:
• eggs ingested…
• “measely beef” eaten…
• bores through the skin of the feet to enter… from fecal contaminated water

6) Pathogenicity and Symptoms:
• clonorchiasis characterized by an enlarged and tender liver…
• rarely fatal
• greatest host damage due to juvenile or larval migration…

7) Diagnosis:
• eggs in the feces or…
• skin test
• proglottids in feces

8) Treatment:

9) Other Comments:
• exists primarily in the Far East
• historical background

10) Case Study:

E. Viruses:

1) Virus Name and/or Group:
• Rubella (German measles); a togavirus (arbovirus);

2) Nucleic Acid Type:
• DNA or RNA

3) Portal of Entry:
• arthropod vector involved such as mosquito
• sexual intercourse
• inhalation of…

4) Pathogenicity and Symptoms:

5) Treatment:

6) Other comments:
• HIV: highest incidence in homosexual males followed by…
• HIV: susceptibility to opportunists such as Candida albicans…

7) Case Study:

Possible Organism
There is also an A-Z index at

A. Bacterial Microorganisms

1. Staphylococcus aureus
2. Streptococcus pneumoniae
3. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
4. Neisseria meningitidis
5. Clostridium botulinum
6. Clostridium tetani
7. Gas Gangrene organisms (C. perfringens, C. novyi, and C. septicum)
8. Bacillus anthracis
9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
10. Mycobacterium leprae
11. Corynebacterium diptheriae
12. Escherichia coli
13. Klebsiella pneumoniae
14. Proteus vulgaris
15. Salmonella typhi
16. Salmonella choleraesuis



Sample Solution