While Dante’s poem is called a “comedy,” and there are places of some apparent humor—for instance, the irreverent demons tending the pool of boiling pitch in Cantos 21-22, including the “trumpet blast” their leader, Barbariccia, makes with his, uh, behind, at the close of Canto 21. But Dante’s intent is clearly not comedic in encouraging light enjoyment and laughter in his readers. In Dante’s time, the word comedy described not just works of humorous intent, but more precisely literary works “marked by a happy ending and a less exalted style than that in tragedy. Dante’s Divine Comedy, for example, was named a comedy by its author because of its ‘prosperous, pleasant, and desirable’ conclusion and because it was written not in Latin but in the vernacular” (Holman and Harmon 95-96). It is important to remember that we are reading not the entire Divine Comedy, but only its first third, Inferno. So, alas, we don’t get to the “happy ending” portion of the poem in Paradiso.
A symbol, as we noted in the “literary terminology” pages earlier in the course, is something in a literary work represented on the concrete, literal level of meaning in a text that also has significant meaning on a higher plane of interpretation—beyond the literal level of the text. For instance, in a story about a man on his deathbed, the chiming of a clock may be on the literal level a descriptive detail of scene—the author’s reporting of an actual sound the characters hear—but on a higher interpretive level, the chiming of the clock might symbolize the inevitable passing of time carrying the man to his death. The chiming could also symbolize the ringing of funeral bells. . . . For a non-literary example, consider the symbolism inherent in a black cat. Literally, a black cat is a feline quadruped prone to carrying fleas in its coat and ripping up furniture with its claws. On the symbolic level, though, black cats are thought to represent bad luck.
In Inferno, many of the punishments are clearly symbolic: they operate on the literal level as the actual punishments various sinners Dante encounters are forced to endure for eternity. But these punishments are also symbolic of divine justice in various ways—sometimes in very complex ways that require our intense pondering to understand them. Think of the symbolic import of suicides being tree-trunks in our last reading, for instance: they considered their bodies as less than sacred in life, so they have “lesser” bodies in hell—they do not deserve “real” human bodies. Among the more obvious instances of symbolism in the punishment of the damned is the condemnation of murderers to swimming in blood up to their necks in Canto 12. The punishment “fits the crime,” as we noted in discussion: since they spilt the blood of others, it’s symbolically appropriate that they swim in blood forevermore in hell. For a more complex instance from our last reading, consider the punishment of the lustful in Canto 5: as a couple of you noted in discussion, just as in life the adulterous lovers were unable to exercise restraint and keep their lust in check, so are they symbolically “unrestrained” in their punishment in hell by being constantly buffeted about by gusty winds. They were “blown about” and led astray in life by their lust, and in hell their being literally blown about, unmoored and forever in the arms of their lovers, is symbolically appropriate because the punishment suits the crime. In each of the different punishments of sinners in the different circles of hell, there is poetic justice in the punishment symbolically fitting the crime.
As the Norton editors point out, the three heads of Satan symbolize his unholy reflection of the holy trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit), there is symbolism in the numbers of cantos (one is introductory, then there are 33 each in Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso—33 is the number of years Jesus is believed to have lived); note also the number of lines within stanzas, and, basically, know that symbolism is rampant in Inferno. For each of the punishments you read of in Cantos 17-34, ponder as deeply as you can how the punishment is symbolically appropriate for the sin in question. Figuring the appropriateness of the punishment to fit the crime is not always so easy: think critically as you read . . . think hard about the possible significance in what Dante describes in each new place he visits in hell.
Levels of sin:
Not to lead you too much in matters we’re covering in discussion, but it’s worth noting that in general, the sins of those in the first few circles of hell are matters of faults or excesses that harm only the sinners (at least in the eyes of Dante’s conception of God), but the graver sins of those in the later circles of hell bring harm not just to the sinners themselves but to others.
Also on the gradations of various sins—many Christians today commonly believe that “all sins are equally sinful” and “hell is hell”—i.e. without different classifications for different punishments. While the specific ranking of sins in degrees is ultimately Dante’s own imagining (down to the ten “pouches” in the Eighth Circle), you should know that the Catholic church of Dante’s time and our own distinguishes between “venial sins,” or relatively minor offenses that make us less respectful of God and less worthy of Him, often being sins not committed intentionally or with conscious forethought, on the one hand, and “mortal sins,” or “deadly sins” on the other, serious offenses against the laws of God that are consciously understood by the sinner and committed willfully. The seven deadly sins are “mortal” in that if we commit them and do not sincerely repent (and confess to a priest, in the Catholic view), our souls are punished with damnation. In different ways all the specific sins Dante elucidates in Inferno are either mortal sins or have as their root cause one of the “seven deadlies”: pride, avarice, lust, anger, gluttony, envy, and sloth.
Note that Dante’s imaginings are clearly mythological, and we won’t find such punishments in scripture. But they do often reflect the beliefs of the time and, indeed, Dante’s depictions were believed as true by some. Even the most advanced intellectuals in Dante’s day would generally accept the punishments as keeping with their perceptions of hell. You may see such depictions in medieval and Renaissance art: Last Judgment depictions are particularly interesting in this regard. But note also that these punishments fit the medievals’ beliefs in justice: separation from God was not enough of a punishment in itself. Also note that the sinners do condemn themselves by their worldly actions, and that they died unrepentant. This is key: Dante believed in God’s forgiveness of sins (portrayed in Purgatorio and Paradiso in The Divine Comedy), but only in those who sincerely repented for their sins before they died.
There is no doubt that Dante presents modern readers with problems. For one thing, we do not see men and women punished “justly” in the town square by whippings, branding, mutilations, and disemboweling, as people of Dante’s age did. Real justice is not front and center in most people’s lives anymore, and the justice that we do see in the U.S., if only occasionally and often from a great distance, is nowhere near as brutal and harsh as it was in the Middle Ages. Nor do most today tend to think of such things as horrible diseases like the black plague as God’s just punishment of evil humans (though some extremists did see AIDS in this light when it was first diagnosed in the 1980s). Dante, however, did live in this harsher and more primitive time, and he wished to reaffirm the moral absolutes of his day. The suicide, Pier della Vigna in Canto XIII, for example, known by Dante and his contemporary readers to be suffering horrible tortures, day in and day out, and who had already had his eyes put out by his torturers before directing violence against himself. His suffering and the fact that he was being tortured to death did not mitigate his sin. Because of his suicide, he is condemned, and, being defined by his crime, can only express himself as he bleeds. Suicide is an absolute and under no circumstances can one take his or her own life, insists Dante. It is worth noting that to this day the Roman Catholic Church takes a harsher view of such matters as birth control, e.g., than do many Protestant faiths.
Some of the punishment, though, might reflect Dante’s attitudes more than medieval Christians in general. Take, for example, the punishment of Pope Celestine V, who resigned his office fearing his involvement in worldly things (Canto III). Celestine sought to save his soul by living a monkish life. Perhaps medieval Christians would agree with Dante that this was damnable, but, in a culture in which many seeking salvation did the same thing as Celestine and were thought of as holy, it seems questionable. Dante’s stress is, of course, on the sins that Celestine allowed to occur by his being followed by a corrupt Pope.
Consider how specific punishments are especially appropriate for the different sins Dante describes in this week’s reading (see chart in the Dante headnote for a list of different sins in the eighth and ninth circles).
• Discuss how some might view the sins of those in the eighth and especially the ninth circles as more grievous or serious matters than those in the first four or five circles.
• More specifically, explain why some might see the sins of the eighth circle as worse even than violence against others or violence against God (in Circle VII).
• Also more specifically, explain why some might see the sins of the ninth circle as more serious or grievous than sins of all eight preceding circles. Why might treachery seem to some so much worse a sin than all the others? Hint: consider the different “treacheries” of specific occupants of the ninth circle.
• Discuss the manner in which Satan is portrayed. Though he probably differs from your own conception of Satan (if any), how is his depiction effective or consistent with Dante’s portrayal of hell more generally?
Pablo Neruda Biography Distributed: sixteenth October, 2017 Last Edited: sixteenth October, 2017 Disclaimer: This exposition has been put together by an understudy. This isn't a case of the work composed by our expert paper scholars. You can see tests of our expert work here. Any sentiments, discoveries, conclusions or proposals communicated in this material are those of the writers and don't really mirror the perspectives of UK Essays. Presentation Pablo Neruda's beautiful abilities became known while he was as yet an adolescent. He did his works in different styles which incorporate authentic sagas, surrealist sonnets, a composition life account, plainly political pronouncements, and sensually charged love ballads. Much of the time he utilized green ink in his works, which symbolized want and expectation from an individual point of view. He had confidence in socialism and pushed for world peace and solidarity, defrauded in his local country and constrained to oust, his yield is a sign that ensures the social inheritance of Chile and the bigger South American district. Beneficial encounters impacted his written work Adolescence His genuine name was Neftalí Ricardo Reyes Basoalto and his town of birth is Parral, Chile on twelfth, 1904. He was destined to Rosa Basoalto Opazo and José del Carmen Reyes Morales. The later was a railroad laborer and the previous a teacher; she kicked the bucket because of tuberculosis two or three months subsequent to imagining his first and final child. Pablo Neruda experienced childhood in Temuco with stepsister Laura and relative Rodolfo. He went to the Men's Lyceum of Temuco where he experienced his secondary school training. Early years 1917-1920 He distributed his lady lyrics at age 13; while still in secondary school among them is "Entusiasmo y Perseverancia" in the territorial every day "La Mañana". Come 1918 he distributed thirteen sonnets in the diary "Run and Fly" which incorporate "My eyes". Come 1919 he got the third prize in a home challenge with his sonnet "Nocturno perfect". His dad was against his child's written work intrigue; regardless Neruda got bolster from in his school mentors. Matured fifteen, Neruda met Gabriella Mistral, who was a guide in the house young lady's school. She acquainted him with crafted by European artists and overwhelmingly Russian writing which motivated him the most. Because of the way that Neruda planned to hide his productions from his dad he selected the nom de plume Pablo Neruda, subsequently all forthcoming distributions after October 1920 were distributed under that pen name. Jan Neruda, a Czech writer affected the youthful artist from whom he obtained his last name. Subsequently he legitimately changed his name to Pablo Neruda. Universidad de Chile – 1921 His dad needed to see him turn into an educator. Come 1921 when he was sixteen and subsequent to moving on from secondary school Neruda moved to Santiago to learn French and Education at the University of Chile. He bore no enthusiasm for instructional method; his drive was in learning French with the goal that he could read French writing. After his landing he published a chain of lyrics in the college magazine "Lucidity" with Pablo Neruda as the signatory. Over the span of this time as an understudy he made a decent number of his prestigious yield and made his check as a respectable artist. He connected with Rosa Albertina Azocar who was his impact for an arrangement of sonnets in a Song of Despair and 20 Love Poems. It was obvious that Pablo planned to take after a vocation in composing therefore his dad slice money related supplies to him. Come July 1923 the lady yield of "Crepusculario" was distributed at the Student Federation of Chile by Clarity Editions. In the resulting year, Nascimiento Editors distributed the principal version of "Veinte Poemas de Amor y una Cancion Desesperada", which would wind up one of his prestigious and most interpreted yields. Conciliatory vocation 1926 In his part as an essayist, Neruda was encountering money related imperatives accordingly he began to search for a vocation as a representative. His accomplishments in writing and connections empowered him land a consular position in Burma. He was a regular supporter of the daily paper "La Nacion" in Santiago where he gave distributes with respect to his movement chronics. Come 1929 he was dispatched to Colombo, Sri Lanka as a delegate. All the while, he experimented with differing styles and completed a progression of surrealistic ballads that framed part to "Residencia en la tierra" one of his most fundamental yields. Come February of 1932, he resettled in Santiago and was given an occupation in the Department of Cultural Extension of the Ministry of Labor, amid this period the second release of "Twenty Poems of Love and a Song of despondency" was distributed. Come 1933, Neruda was been a Consul in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Nascimiento Editors distributed "Living arrangement on Earth" confining its production to a modest 100 print outs. Neruda was moved to Madrid in 1935 in an indistinguishable limit from a diplomat as a substitution to Gabriela Mistral. Neruda was an originator of "Green Horse for verse" a magazine that represents considerable authority in writing. He surrendered his family in Barcelona and snared with Delia del Carril. Spanish Civil War and socialism Come July 1936 the Spanish Civil War began and Federico Garcia Lorca was slaughtered by powers gave to Franco. Outcome to this occurrence, Neruda moved toward becoming politicized laying constancy to the republican side along these lines a socialist for the rest of his life. He stayed impartial to political causes because of his part as an emissary. He made distributes in mystery of "Melody to the moms of the dead aggressors" caught in the scholarly diary "The blue monkey" which a short time later ended up being a segment of "Spain in the heart". The legislature of Chile picked to shut down its department in Madrid. He at that point a short time later moved to Paris close by Delia del Carril and started his work in help of the Spanish Republic. He arranged the Latin American Committee with regards to the Spanish Republic and exhibited a meeting in regards to Federico Garcia Lorca, this was against the Chilean organization wishes. He made distributes of his takes in the magazine "The world artists protect the Spanish individuals" which was imprinted in French and in Spanish. He joined with Peruvian Cesar Vallejo and released obligations in the Association for the Defense of Culture. In the sonnet "I clarify a couple of things" he displayed an activist and radical tone regarding political and social viewpoints. On moving back to his local Chile, he understood the Alliance of Intellectuals. The lady release of two thousand duplicates of "España en el Corazon" sold out in the initial couple of days and after two months per second version print outs were made. Mexico 1940 - 1943 Come 1940 Neruda was doled out in Mexico City as the Consul General of Chile. In the repercussions of the murder endeavor of Leon Trotsky Neruda, Nerudo allowed a visa Chile to David Alfaro Siqueiros, a Mexican blamed as one for the connivers to kill Trotsky. This prompted his multi month suspension with no compensation. Come 1942 Neruda gave a progression of talks politeness of a welcome by the Ministry of training. Amid his stay in Cuba he knew about the downfall of his dear companion Miguel Hernandez in a Spanish jail. Amid this time, he completed 2 ballads "The lost shepherd" and "To Miguel Hernandez killed in the jails of Spain" which were consolidated in "The grapes and the breeze" and "Canto General" separately. While on an excursion Mexico he presented his ballad "Melody to Stalingrad" which celebrated the essential Russian triumph over the Nazis. This prompted judgment that he completed a ballad "New love melody to Stalingrad", the two sonnets were fused in his book "Third Residence". Neruda once more completed an infringement on his political unprejudiced nature when at the burial service of Leocadia Felizardo, he recounted his sonnet "Dura elegía" along these lines making articulations that were considered hostile to Getulio Vargas, the Brazilian tyrant. Therefore, he surrendered from his situated and returned to Chile. While on board to Santiago, he went to the remaining parts of Machu Picchu, which affected him to state "Alturas de Machu Picchu" he ended up in 1945. He exceedingly appraised the endeavors done by old Andean progress; in the meantime he censured the servitude that occurred in an offer to achieve such an excellent structure and their following oppression by the Spaniards. Come back to Chile and the Communist Party 1944 Soon after returning to Chile, Neruda was made senatorial contender for the regions of Tarapacá and Antofagasta in portrayal of the Communist Party of Chile. In spite of not being a formal activist, he turned out to be a piece of the gathering quickly a short time later. He was engaged in the crusades and come 1945 he was chosen Senator of the Republic. Come 1946 Gabriel Gonzales Videla was voted Chilean President in a coalition with the Communist Party. In the consequent year, Gonzales Videla betrayed the Communists and adjusted himself to the U.S starting a battle contrary to the communists. A forceful restraint of a digger's strike in Lota affected the artist to denounce President Gonzales Videla's strategy in a discourse. He recounted the names of the diggers and their families who had been put in jail. For the reason that Gonzales Videla banned the comrade party daily paper "The Century" from tasks, Nerudo did distributing of a letter "Suggest letter for many men" in a decent number of Latin American countries. This correspondence condemned the administration managing standards against its kin. The decision administration blamed Neruda for affront and of stooping Chile abroad and started the procedure of arraignment. Around this time he went into refuges and consistently changed houses to dodge catch. In the process he finished "Canto General". Outcast 1948 Come 1949 he went to Mexico where he participated in the Latin American Congress for Peace. While in Mexico, he endured thrombophl>GET ANSWER