Explain why Ryle believes there is a fundamental difference between “knowing how” and “knowing that” using an example. 2. Explain and illustrate Plato’s distinction between a “knack” and a “craft.” 3. Calicles claims that “the superior should take by force what belongs to the inferior, that the better should rule the worse and the more worthy have a greater share than the less worthy….” What is Socrates’s argument that the “superior” should not do this? Be sure to state Socrates’s position and formulate at least one of his arguments. 4. How might philosophy make a person just according to Plato? Why is philosophy insufficient according to Aristotle? 5. State “experientialism” about what makes someone’s life go better. In light of James’s discussion of “flow,” give reasons why Nozick’s experience machine does or does not present a successful counter-example to this view. 6. In light of Parfit’s discussion, distinguish between experientialism, objective list theories, and desire-based views of the quality of life using an example. 7. Present a counter-example to Kant’s “categorical imperative” that one should only act in ways that one could also will as a universal law. 8. Compare Sartre and Aristotle on the extent to which we can choose our selves. Give a reason why one or the other view seems more likely to be correct. 9. State one way Sartre agrees with Kant, and one way Sartre disagrees with Kant. 10. Merleau-Ponty wrote: “What then is freedom? … there is never determinism and never an absolute choice. I am never a mere thing and never a bare consciousness.” Explain how this passage disagrees with Sartre using an example. 11. Why for Young is a girl’s “throwing like a girl” a reflection of her bodily sense of space and yet not her “feminine essence”? 12. Explain the “affective revolution” in psychology and Railton’s objection to it. 13. Why according to Anderson is the modern workplace by and large an authoritarian dictatorship? Why would “egalitarian” object to this? Why would a “republican” object to this? 14. Why according to Crawford is work degraded or less meaningful when the intuitive judgments of practitioners are replaced by mere rule following (as by a machine or in an assembly line). 15. Why according to James should we cutback the workweek? Is he correct? Why or why not. 16. How according to James can climate adaptation be “efficient”? 17. Why according to Suits is it impossible to win a game if you cheat?






Sample Solution