Why is Socrates dissatisfied with the definitions of justice provided by Cephalus, Polemarchus, and Thrasymachus? Briefly describe each definition and each response by Socrates. [Book 1]
What purpose does the Myth of Gyges serve in the discussion of justice? What implication does this have for our understanding of just & unjust action? [Book 2]
How is the kallipolis structured, and what is its purpose? How is justice enforced in this ideal city? [Books 3-4]
Why does Socrates hold the philosopher king in such high regard? Explain how this ruler is different from other types of governing bodies. [Book 6]
Describe the Allegory of the Cave and explain its significance. What point does the allegory help Socrates make? How does it relate to the philosopher king? [Book 7]
What are the commonplace things that humans often attribute to their happiness? Explain why Aristotle believes that these things fail to really make us happy.
Aristotle argues that moral virtue (virtue) and intellectual virtue (wisdom) are the proper avenues to happiness. Explain the difference between the two, and explain why they succeed where other potential avenues fail.
Aristotle tells us that the virtues exist on a spectrum between the vices of excess and defect. Explain the relationship between the virtues and the two vices that accompany each. In other words, how do the vices relate to their respective virtues, and how are humans supposed to navigate the vices in order to get to the virtues. Use at least two examples.
What does Aristotle mean when he refers to humans as “political animals?” Explain in detail
Explain Aristotle’s division of political authority into three fields. What are the three appropriate formulations of each type of authority, and what are the three deviant formulations of each type of authority? What is the fundamental problem with the deviant formulations? Explain.
What is Machiavelli’s position on princes who gain power through wickedness? Why does he hold this position, and do you agree/disagree with it?
Machiavelli says that “it is necessary for a prince who wishes to maintain his position to learn how not to be good, and to use this knowledge or not to use it according to necessity” (337). Explain how this advice reflects a morality for the prince. Is it difficult to reconcile not being good with a moral framework? Also, what conditions would he deem “necessary?”
Explain Machiavelli’s position on whether a prince should be loved, feared, hated, or some combination of these qualities
What are the three proper formulations of government, according to Machiavelli, and what are their deviations? Which among these, if any, does Machiavelli argue is the best form?
Explain Machiavelli’s positions on virtue (virtu) and fortune (fortuna) in relation to the maintenance of a government (either a principality or a republic).
According to Hobbes, what is the “natural condition of Man?” Describe this condition in detail and explain why it is problematic.
What must an individual give up in order to leave the ‘state of nature’ and enter into a ‘commonwealth?’ What does the individual obtain in return? Evaluate whether or not this appears to be a fair exchange.
What are the three types of commonwealths that Hobbes discusses? What are the virtues and shortcomings of each?
Explain what role the ‘sovereign’ plays in the transition from the state of nature to the commonwealth. What power does the sovereign have over the populace? What power does the populace have if sovereign becomes tyrannical?
According to Hobbes, what is the difference between a covenant formed in the state of nature and a covenant formed in a commonwealth?
Explain what Locke means when he says that individuals in the state of nature are governed by Natural Law. What is this law, and how does it guide behavior? In this capacity, how does Locke’s state of nature differ from Hobbes’s?
Compare and contrast Locke’s view of the state of war with Hobbes’s view. In your opinion, which description seems more conducive to the state of nature as a general thought experiment?
Describe Locke’s view of property in detail. What is it? How is it acquired? What is it about our relationship with property that compels us to leave the state of nature and establish a political society?
Describe the parameters of an appropriately-conceived commonwealth, according to Locke. Be sure to discuss the importance of the legislative body. Be specific.
What are the major differences between Locke’s and Hobbes’s conception of authority in the commonwealth vis-à-vis the people?
Describe what Rousseau means when he talks about the concept of ‘amour-propre.’ What utility does this concept have in lieu of its omission in Hobbes’s analysis?
According to Rousseau, what is the difference between natural inequality and moral inequality? What role does property have in the development of moral inequality?
Explain how the concepts of ‘the sovereign’ and ‘the general will’ relate to each other in Rousseau’s system.
According to Rousseau, what are the signs of a ‘good government,’ and what are the signs of a degenerate government?
Rousseau has a very specific and nuanced vision of a proper democracy. Explain what it is in detail.
Why is it important for the discussion of moral and political philosophy to generate from a metaphysical foundation?
According to Kant, what is the ‘good will,’ and how does ‘duty’ relate to it? Define your terms and explain the relationship.
What is the difference between a ‘hypothetical imperative’ and a ‘categorical imperative?’ How do ‘perfect duties’ and ‘imperfect duties’ relate to each type of imperative? Be specific.
Describe the four steps that are used to calculate whether or not a maxim can be considered a categorical imperative.
According to Kant, why is the categorical imperative so instrumental as an object of moral behavior? What is your evaluation of the categorical imperative?
MARX and ENGELS
Describe Marx and Engels’s materialist interpretation of history.
What is the bourgeoisie? What is the proletariat? Explain the relationship between these entities.
Explain Marx and Engels’s critique of industrial capitalist society.
What role does bourgeois property, or private property, play in Marx and Engels’s socialist solution to capitalism?
Explain the difference between utopian and scientific socialism, according to Engels.
Define and explain the Principle of Utility; be sure to include the distinction between greater and lesser pleasures.
Define and explain the Greatest Happiness Principle; be sure to include a discussion of individual- and group-level happiness.
Explain the role that intentions or motives play in a utilitarian calculus.
Discuss two or more problems with Utilitarianism.
Define and explain the Harm Principle
"lords claim," were called á¿ÿανγημα (Hogarth, 1897, p 55). The most regarded sum the foot corps of Guards (νπασπισταá¼±), uncommonly connected to the individual of the ruler. They ended up celebrated in Alexander's wars and later ended up known as the silver shields (Αργνρá¼€σπιδες). Like the mounted force they were all "Royals," however among them an uncommon corps d' tip top (τá½¸ á¼‚γημα τá½ βασιλικá½€ν) as expressed in the diary of philology, xvii., No.33, p: 14. "Armed force of Alexander". 7 Depending on its preparation and train, Philip could acquaint his armed force with new battling strategies. Philip thought his armed force charge, not in a line but rather in a wedge molded arrangements (Tact 16: refered to by Lendon, 2006, p: 96-100). 8 A gadget bound to be depended on by Alexander at Arbela. For the infantry, Philip idealized the well known phalanx, despite the fact that in origination this phalanx was not the same as the current Greek battling clothing. Philip was viewed as its designer, as Philip created and controlled it. Philip had two principle thoughts, " first to render assemblages of pike man more versatile and malleable than the Theban or Spartan (Hogarth, 1897, pg. 60). Philips second thought was the "sarissa" or long pike, which would empower his phalanx to strike the primary blow. For such a weapon as this, preparation and teach were basic. The Macedonian multitudes of the third and second hundreds of years utilized a sarissa even twenty-four feet long. 9 No reference is made by any antiquarian of Alexander to such a strange weapon as the sarissa. The key to the achievement of Philips and Alexander's fights lies in their horsemanship, Macedonian and united light monitors and toxophilite. The watchmen are regularly figured into the phalanx for instance in (iii.11), 10 in Arrian's inventory of the exhibit at Arbela, yet they are additionally recognized unmistakably from the substantial phalangites. This expert military framework was crafted by numerous years. To a great extent hired fighters supplemented Philips national armed force. 11 This technique for associates was not surrendered completely by his child Alexander his child. A most pivotal point we know as truth is that Alexander acquired forty thousand prepared men, and a settled framework. Antiquated fighting assumed a noteworthy part in Philips eleven attacks. A significant number of Philips military changes did not occur without any forethought, but rather proceeded all through his rule and even after his passing with Alexander. In 350 headed by Polyeidos (Polyidus) of Thessaly Philip II set up a "building corps" to outline and assemble new attack apparatus including the Mechanical Bow and Torsion Catapult (figure 11, Worthington, 2014. P: 37). Philip utilized the primary early models of the torsion launch was in 340 at the attack of Byzantium (Ashley, 2004, p: 74). Philips boss designer went ahead to build up a model of an all the more ground-breaking torsion launch that could shoot bigger stones and bolts over more prominent separations. It is significant that the surviving archives allude to this new kind of sling as "katapellai makedonikoi" (Macedonian launches) (Gabriel, 2010, p: 92). Polyeidos prepared two of his understudies Diades, and Charias to proceed with his work. In 334 BCE Diades succeeded Polyeidos as Alexander's central designer, together Diades and Charias finish the advancement of the torsion sling, by delivering a machine fit for tossing "stone shot" sufficiently extensive wreck dividers (Ashley, 2004, p: 74). Under Alexander the Great the advancement of big guns proceeded, in 330's B.C. The torsion launch was additionally created to toss "one-ability" (57 pound stones) (Ashley, 2004, p: 74). It was under Alexander the Great attack fighting achieved its tallness. This could never have conceivable if hadn't of been Alexander acquiring the capacity to curb refers to rapidly due to the work Polyeidos (Philips design) made, as Alexander's Persian crusade would not been conceivable (Gabriel, 2010, p: 92). This was a troublesome exposition to compose, as sources managing Philip are restricted (Ashley, 2004, p: 74). Contingent upon the manner in which you approach as it's anything but difficult to center too barely around the accomplishments of Alexander, without having examined the commitment of Philip. Quickly one might say that in a large number of the books I have perused about this point, a considerable lot of the sections were involved with subtle elements of sentiments about Alexander the Great, and in that advance his dad King Philip of Macedonia was overlooked. What a weakness! By and by, "I am slanted to trust that world had not referred to Alexander the Great as Alexander positioned his self above customary mortals" (Rostovtzeff, 1926, p: 352) at that point Philip would not have been discussed. Then again in the event that it had not been for Philip, who laid the vast majority of the basis in which Alexander acquired, Alexander then he would not have moved toward becoming Alexander the Great. Alexander received the reward of his dad's work not simply military (the armed force he had been prepared to utilize), yet through astute financial and discretionary approach. Macedonia was a poor domain. The general population lived in steady war with everybody and each other. Philip brought things into his own hands, as he had extraordinary political intensity and nuance. Philip did this by making an expert armed force, solidifying visitors with outfitted urban communities. Philip accomplished this by paying off with coinage and tricky his foes. Philip turned silver and gold mining to a productive business. Philip likewise manufactured streets and trenches. The merger of Macedonia was an extremely troublesome and drawn out task. Which paid off exceptionally well at last. To come back to a before point it is significant that it was "Philip who made the primary land state ever" (Gabriel, 2010, p: 2), Greece, by supplanting the out of date city state framework. Philips most impressive accomplishment was the tranquility of Corinth where Philip at last joined all his past foes, not overlooking Athens into one element. The commitments that prompt the later accomplishments of Alexander were the instruction of Aristotle, the armed force Philip made including coinage and a built up country. Sadly for Alexander, he felt kept down by his dad and dependably appear to live in the shadow of his dad which appear to frequented by this as his accomplishments inconsequential to those of his dad. Alexander and Philip rivaled each from various perspectives "imitating and hatred" as expressed in Fredricksmeyer 1990. Despite the fact that I don't concur with each contention in diary of Alexander and Philip by Fredricksmeyer 1990. It's an entrancing depiction of their relationship and gives superb wellsprings of references and events in their relationship. Alexander and Philip were both incredible in their own right. On the off chance that Philip had not made the armed force he did, Alexander couldn't have accomplished what he did, yet Philip then again couldn't have accomplished what Alexander did had he survived. Alexander was Philips genuine child and beneficiary. It was Philips commitments that established the frameworks for Alexander to end up the man he was, for example, instruction, the armed force and attack fighting that Alexander acquired and a built up country. Notes 1 Hymn to Arête: Athen. 15.696 B-D. Investigation of lliad: P>GET ANSWER