This assignment revolves around 5 different versions of the same historical event: Pope Urban II’s sermon at the Council of Clermont (1095). As historians, we are left with alternate interpretations, memories, representations, and physical records of this famous ‘speech’, which inspired and ignited the First Crusade to the Holy Land.
There is no doubt about the sermon’s importance. But the various accounts transmitted down the centuries leave us with a number of interpretive challenges and questions.
As the historian, your task is to make sense of these different accounts, with a view to demonstrating a firm understanding of the most accurate historical narrative. The aim is to examine the 5 accounts, to reconcile their similarities and differences, and ultimately, to decipher Urban’s motivations and objectives. Put another way, you need to consider the nuances and textures of the various historical accounts. Pay careful attention to the details as well as the overall context of the late 11th century, in which period the First Crusade was launched.
Feburary1954 in a Joint Communiqu??` issued together in Karachi and Ankara; it was declared that Turkey and Pakistan were agreed to adopt the mechanisms of closer cooperation in the political, economic and cultural departments, and they will also put their sincere efforts to develop peace and security between each other not only in their own interest but also in the interest of all peace loving nations. (Burke, 1973) That contents of that Turku-Pakistan communiqu?? of February 1954 developed into concrete shape in an agreement signed on April 2, 1954. According to that agreement’s Article IV which dealt co-operation in defense, and statement shows that a switch of information regarding technical grounds will be made and endeavors will be done to fulfill the requirements for the ample supply of arms and ammunition in case of unjustified attacks under Article 51 of the charter of United Nations. (Hussain, 2008). Baghdad Pact Turkey and Iraq laid the foundation of the Baghdad Pact, signing a Pct of Mutual Cooperation for ‘security and defense’ in February 1955 in the Iraqi capital. It was not an auspicious start. In the first place, Turkey was unpopular in the Arab world for having recognized Israel. Secondly, Egypt, which was considered by Britain as the key to a defense arrangement in the Middle East, denounced the Baghdad Pact. On receiving an invitation from Turkey and Iraq to join, Pakistan was not enthusiastic. Disappointed with the amount of US aid, Pakistan was no longer keen to undertake further military commitments in Middle East. In June, Ayub Khan was invited to Turkey. Prime Minister Nuri said of Iraq was also there. He and Adnan Manderes succeeded in convincing Ayub about the advantages of joining the pact. On 23 September 1955, Pakistan signed the Pact of Mutual Cooperation in Baghdad, in it the other regional members included Iran, Iraq and Turkey. Britian also joined it but the United States did not become a full member. The Baghdad Pact provided a good line of cooperation regarding the securi>GET ANSWER