This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeIntroductionProvide background information on kidney stones.
Discuss the formation of different types of kidney stones.
Discuss the property of ionic compound vs covalent compound.
Discuss equilibrium and le chatelier’s principle.
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeMethods-Use a flow chart to explain how to prepare kidney stones.
-Discuss set up and procedures for vacuum filtration and centrifuge for sample collections.
-Explain how would you try to dissolve the kidney stones, and how to quantify the amount of kidney stone ?
-Which indicator is used and what is the color change?
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeDataFor this part, since you did not collect any data. You will have to show the following calculations:
-How to prepare a 0.2 M EDTA solution with 250 mL volume.
-How to prepare a 100 mL of 0.017 M EDTA solution using stock 0.2 M EDTA solution.
-If you aim to prepare 10 grams of Ca3(PO4)2 , write out the balance chemical equation to prepare Ca3(PO4)2 .
-Show what reactants and how much (in grams) of each you will have to use to obtain 10 gram of Ca3(PO4)2.
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeDiscussion-Discuss how does EDTA bind with divalent metals, show the structure of EDTA binding to a divalent metal.
- If you have a very low percent yield of the product, explain why. If you have a percent yield of the product over 100%, explain why. Don’t just state human errors. Discuss potential errors.
-What kind of environment promote the formation of kidney stone?Explain and discuss.
-What are the effective ways to dissolve kidney stones? Explain and discuss.
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeConclusionExplain what did you learn in this lab. With the techniques you learned in this lab, provide TWO applications for them.
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Reference and Organization-Provide THREE references using the USF database. (lab manual will not be counted as one reference)
-Make sure all your images and graphs are properly cited and the narration is clear and coherent.
Problem area policing has been demonstrated successful in lessening issue related wrongdoing in areas where it is pervasive. There is noteworthy proof to help the adequacy of this program. This procedure depends on the messed up windows hypothesis of wrongdoing which clarifies that wrongdoing is predominant in zones with significant levels of physical and social issue (Office of Justice Programs, 2011). The hypothesis recommends that decreasing issue in horror regions will diminish wrongdoing, particularly aggravation wrongdoing, and improve the conditions in the zone. Over the span of this paper, I will design an assessment of Florence Police Academy's new problem area policing program. I will begin by portraying the program and earlier research, make an examination configuration plan for their result assessment, and clarify the qualities and impediments of this arrangement. The Hot Spots Policing Strategy was first actualized in 2005 to diminish wrongdoing by improving both social and physical request in their horror zones (Office of Justice Programs, 2011). By reestablishing request in these zones, issue related violations were diminished altogether. The general objective of the program was to decrease wrongdoing over the whole city of Lowell by actualizing these practices in horror territories. There are three methodologies used to diminish issue related wrongdoing. The main methodology is expanded offense captures. This comprises of more "stop and searches", and foot watch officials looking for suspicious people. Along these lines, they can target open issue infringement, for example, open intoxication and medication managing. By going out on a limb people off the lanes, there will be less events of turmoil related wrongdoing. The subsequent methodology is situational anticipation which spotlights on social and physical issue. By introducing more lights, expanding video reconnaissance, clearing loiterers, ousting issue inhabitants, and clearing relinquished structures and parts, police can reestablish request by expelling those irksome people from the zone. This requires joint effort between police, entrepreneurs and neighborhood network associations. The third technique manages social administrations activities which assists police with expanding social request with the assistance of social help organizations. This incorporates giving destitute havens, recreational offices for youth, and giving psychological well-being administrations to those out of luck. These open doors will make open doors for high-chance people, so they can enable the police to reestablish social request (Office of Justice Programs, 2011). By consolidating these systems alongside joint effort with the encompassing organizations and associations, the Lowell Police Department can utilize problem area policing to diminish wrongdoing in the general region. The objective regions are those of horror in the city and guilty parties of turmoil related violations. By conveying police units to tidy up these zones of the city, the general measure of wrongdoing will diminish. The following area of this examination paper will cover different research contemplates that help the legitimacy of utilizing the problem area procedure. There is broad research that supports the problem area system as a gainful procedure in the city. For instance, Braga and Bond (2008) led a randomized controlled preliminary on the viability of the problem area system on clutter related wrongdoing in Lowell, Massachusetts. They utilized the Scanning, Analysis, Response, Assessment (SARA) procedure to find the problem areas in the territory. Through the span of 1 year, they found 34 problem area territories and haphazardly appointed each problem area to a control or a treatment gathering, bringing about 17 medicines and 17 control gatherings. Neighborhood police doled out units to each gathering so as to test out the program. They utilized the Problem-Oriented Policing methodology which comprised of dynamic, request upkeep policing and a scope of situational and social-administration intercessions so as to decrease wrongdoing. This policing comprised of foot and engine watches, field examinations, and turmoil authorization. The results utilized for assessment were resident calls for administration, watched turmoil, for example, sauntering, and open drinking, and dislodging/dispersion impacts watching changes in wrongdoing in the encompassing regions. The consequences of the investigation inferred that there was a general decline in wrongdoing in the treatment regions instead of the control territories. There was a 19.8% diminishing in resident calls for administration in treatment territories incorporating a 41.8% decrease in theft calls, social issue was reduced at 82.4% of treatment zones, and 76.5% of treatment regions for physical issue. Be that as it may, there was no huge relocation present in any of the treatment or control zones. There were conflicting numbers and sorts of calls for administration in the encompassing territories, so the positive outcomes were not critical. Haberman (2016) additionally did an exploration study the adequacy of problem area policing procedures by meeting police officers and finding out about the present methodologies they use. From the outcomes, they could finish up whether the present systems were valuable in non-test police circumstances. This examination utilized perceptions of police technique gatherings and meetings to comprehend what cops thought they were doing accurately, and how powerful the present systems ended up being. Sherman and Weisburd (1995) found that expanding police in horror territories, for example, sedate corners, or having them visit a problem area for 15 minutes at regular intervals demonstrated to be exceptionally viable. In this article, the "black box" (491) issue concerns the strategies that police units really use in problem area territories. Since every unit acted diversely, all things considered, circumstances, it is difficult to decide if their strategies were successful, or it was only the expansion of police numbers in issue territories that decreased wrongdoing. Balanced proof based approach was utilized in this investigation to decide whether, how, and why various activities diminish wrongdoing. Commandants of the Philadelphia Police Department were met by the specialist alongside field perceptions of PPD technique gatherings (492). The example incorporated the 6 PPD commandants with the biggest number of problem areas in their purviews. The examination concentrated on brutal wrongdoing problem areas in the late spring, which is when progressively fierce violations happen. Field notes and transcripts were broke down and put under a code to indicate the kind of wrongdoing issue talked about, problem area strategies that were utilized, or pertinent information questions. The outcomes indicated that police officers for the most part centered around expanding police nearness and authorization in horror zones (507). They battled to diminish wrongdoing by concentrating on high-chance guilty parties in horror territories, and teaching residents on the best way to shield themselves from things like burglary and robbery. The outcomes additionally demonstrated that police leaders are exceptionally hypothetical and determined with their activities. They try to dishearten guilty parties by making a move against them vigorously, and accept that there are various hypothetical instruments that can be utilized to avert wrongdoing. Albeit a few pundits may stress over their activities being biased, the police units demonstrated that the administrators' procedures worked. Weisburd (2005) utilized a contextual investigation examination of two randomized problem area tests so as to assemble eight exercises with respect to the usage and improvement of spot based randomized preliminaries and test strategies. He looks to confirm that the utilization of randomized analyses in criminal equity, particularly those used to examine problem area policing, are compelling. Pundits contend that exploratory randomization in criminal equity forces such a large number of restrictions, prompts usage disappointments, and presents genuine moral issues (221). In spite of these convictions, problem area policing preliminaries have set up some validity to the viability of randomized experimentation. The examination in this article tries to clarify how problem area analyses tackled usage issues, conquered moral predicaments, and what records for the approach pertinence of these investigations. The randomized grouped testing was essential for problem area policing so as to diminish the measure of moral concerns. Problem area zones are regularly started by emergency in the territory, expanding the requirement for more police units. So as to comprehend why certain regions become problem areas, analysts try to discover why a few people become crooks instead of others, and what natural variables add to a zone turning into a horror territory. Sherman and Weisburd (1995) investigated the down to earth ramifications of the problem areas policing approach and found that conveying more watches in the little level of horror regions could possibly dislodge wrongdoing to different zones. The National Institute of Justice additionally did a progression of tests and with the Drug Market Analysis Program drew in entrepreneurs and residents in wrongdoing control endeavors (228). The consequences of this examination demonstrated an abatement in confusion related calls for administration, and furthermore next to no relocation of wrongdoings to different zones. Looking at these investigations reached the determination that randomized inspecting could really be viable in criminal equity, on account of instances of problem area policing systems. In the wake of investigating these articles, I can make a structure intend to assess the result of problem area policing. Following the techniques for Braga and Bond (2005) and Haberman (2016), I will make an arrangement so as to decide whether problem area policing is viable in diminishing wrongdoing in the Florence Police Academy's purview. I will direct a randomized controlled example of problem area regions in Florence by first figuring out which territories have the most elevated measure of wrongdoing, and choosing the most elevated 20 zones for my assessment. I will haphazardly relegate each spot as a controlled or a treatment region, without telling the units of my decisions. The FPD administrators will dole out a unit to two problem areas, and controlled spots will actualize their present systems while the t>GET ANSWER