Conduct an interview with the person responsible for managing the budget for
the organization that you represent.
o If you are not affiliated with an organization, select a fire and emergency
Identify the organization you chose in your report.
Describe the management of fiscal resources utilized by the organization that
Identify the type of budget utilized by the organization you represent.
Describe the budget proposal and approval processes the organization you
Identify the subsections of the budget.
Provide a meaningful conclusion summarizing your work.
Parkinson’s Disease is an excellent model for mind-body interactions and “studying the neurobiological mechanisms of the placebo effect.” (Benedetti, F. 2009) The placebo effect is also commonly used to treat parkinsonian patients, as there is a relatively high success rate. As can be seen in Figure 2, in the first approximately 8 months, the rate of clinical improvement in Parkinson’s Disease symptoms is the same in real surgery and sham surgery. Even almost two years after the procedure, the projected rate of improvement is not vastly different. This shows how effective sham or placebo surgery treatments are, and more importantly, how potent the mind is. Furthermore, in a double-blind placebo surgery trial for parkinsonism, psychiatrists concluded “In all cases, those who thought they received the transplant reported better scores… demonstrating the value of placebo-controlled surgical trials.” (McRae, et al. 2004) This concurs with the findings of Benedetti (2009) who discovered that, after 18 months, there was substantial improvement in both real and sham surgery groups for both motor performance and quality of life. Therefore, the placebo effect and related treatments can be widely utilised for parkinsonian patients, as it delivers the desired outcome without the possible side effects. As I previously mentioned, the symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease include tremors, bradykinesia, rigidity and issues with gait and balance. Studies have shown that bradykinesia is more prone to improvement via verbal placebo treatment, and while all aspects of Parkinson’s Disease are liable to improvement by placebo treatment, symptoms of rigidity and bradykinesia are more sensitive than the others. “Bradykinesia results from a failure of basal ganglia output to reinforce the cortical mechanisms that prepare and execute the commands to move.” (Berardelli, A., et al. 2001) In basic terms this means the neurons which control body movements are not functioning correctly, resulting in a reduced and slower velocity of movement. This symptom may be more inclined to the placebo effect than others because it is dependent on the formation of neural pathways. As I explained in the mechanisms of the placebo effect, the more these pathways are recalled and travelled, the stronger they become. This also links as to why verbal cues are most effective with regards to this aspect of parkinsonism; the learning process and the experience associated causes the formation of neurons and pathways. Eventually, this leads to an overall improvement in Parkinson patients, showing the full potential and effectiveness of the placebo effect in medicine. Expectation vs. Intensity This is perhaps the most predominant similarity between the confirmation bias and the placebo effect. Expectations cause changes and adjustments in cognitive and neuroscientific behavior, which may lead>GET ANSWER