Project Approaches

1) Planning is a difficult process in project management that requires a framework of basic steps so that a desired result is achieved. The stepwise planning process serves as a guide towards this, enhancing production with regard to activity (Abdel et. al 2009). The products created include system products, module products, and management products. These may be tangible products, modified versions of an existing product, or even products developed from scratch, such as software. The result of system products can be overall specifications, integration test cases, or tested integrated software. Those of module products include module design documents and module codes, while the management product is a progress report, which runs throughout the entire project (Hughes, 1999).

2) Before an activity test program takes place, there has to be other preceding products the test depends on which have to be completed. Some of these products may be deliverables, hence can be handed over to the client at the end, while others may be intermediate, only serving to shape the end product. They include technical products such as training equipment and functional commands, management products such as documentation details, and quality products which affect the final outcome (Hughes, 1999). In turn, this activity creates a hierarchical product, whereby the main product will have a few other sets of component products, which may also have other sub-sets.

3) The first step in creating the work plan to ensure the task complements the project involves establishing the relationship between the project and the strategic plan. The project has to have activities, which create the final product. Simply stating ‘learning new method’ does not offer deliverables, which the task can be based on. From there, the employee can consider the user requirements vis-a-vis the stipulated time and expected outcome (Human et. al, 2013). This helps take into account the number of activities to be carried out, and plans them as per the time available, thereby, developing a methodology. Eventually, he can generate an activity network which will be able to suit his work plan, enabling him achieve the desired result of teaching the systems analysis and design method.

4) a. Product breakdown structure







































Product flow diagram.










Preliminary Activity Network

5) a. There might be concern that the new project may not adapt with the old methodologies because new systems are more integrated and complex that older systems. Old systems are unidirectional, thus, may exhibit just one method of doing things. (Woodridge, 2009) They may, as such, be able to assist in developing the framework for the evolution of a new system, based on the initial concepts used in the structured systems.

With the new system, analysis and thorough research will be done so that simulations can develop a system that properly augurs with the desired property market. Consultations with the relevant professionals as well as the economic implications of the model will be discussed at length. This will result in the new model being too complex to be handled by the old systems, leading to the development of new systems framework and a more prototype approach (Tatikonda et. al, 2009).

  1. b) A preferred methodology for the development of this system would be:
  • Define objectives: the desired end result of what the new system is expected to deliver.
  • Research on relevant literature concerning the system to determine whether any information is available concerning the system, or whether it has been developed by somebody else.
  • Approach relevant experts for consultation so as to acquire applicable knowledge.
  • Develop an initial conceptual design for the system.
  • Build on the design
  • Test the design using information from the recent past, and compare simulations to the actual system.
  • Thoroughly analyze any variance, alter the model, and carry out tests once more.
  • Should there be no significant improvements, leave it at that point for some time.
  • Conduct and establish general validation of the model’s accuracy, and how efficient and easy its use is.

6) a. The software prototype would be of value because it changes and improves the organizational activities. The procedures will become more effective and efficient due to the application of information and communication technology (Mohan et. al, 2011). In a general rundown, it will improve the package’s capacity to, it will increase efficiency to data access, the quality of service will be improved, costs will be reduced, and there will be enhanced decision making.

Prototyping can be controlled through investigating product requirements. This implies being fed with information on constant changes. It enables the software keep up with developing trends. It can also be controlled through improving the ability of those involved in the design and execution of the project so that various contextual attributes can be handled. By being alert on the total project cost, it helps in being able to invest in the project while it is still viable. (Pollard, 2012)The leadership of the project also plays a vital role as the stronger the management, the more orderly and effective the project.

7) a. the physical dependencies that will help create a sequence in the activity and govern the order in which transactions are carried out include the user, the supplier, and the executive (the owner of the system). (Hughes, 1999)

  1. b) The system could be broken down by dividing it into various sections that have primarily different functions but add up to the final product, which is availing financial information (Norman et. al, 2011). This can help improve data security as they are separate, thus cannot be easily doctored. It would also make it easier to store or generate data for the user since he will be served depending on what sector he is involved in, for example, retrieving a statement from a different point and invoicing at a different station. This creates general efficiency in the system.

8) a. To the student:

  • The application will enable him to get valuable feedback from the users in the factory during the early stages of his project.
  • It could also be an important part of a feasibility study which can be manually set up to be tried so as to determine how useful it can be.
  • Should the prototype be more of a critical response, it could serve as a basis for writing the specifications for production a of quality system.

8) b. To the engineering company:

  • There may be insufficient analysis as it is a trial. This may distract the developers from properly analyzing the complete project.
  • There would be user confusion of prototype and finished system. The users may assume that the prototype is a final system and expect it to accurately model performance, leading to conflicts.
  • The developers may become attached to the prototype, owing to the effort spent in producing it. This may lead to problems such as attempting to convert it into a final system without the appropriate procedures.
  1. to the business:
  • The expense of implementing the prototype would be high as it is an income generating proposal whose returns cannot be quantified. The target population is also very limited (Kim, 2013).
  • It may be able to deliver a working system to the end users.


  • It could lead to increased and improved user involvement as the people who will interact with it will provide complete and timely feedback, which may help prevent many misunderstandings and miscommunications between the users.

9) Precedence activity network                                                                                                           Critical path = A-B-G-H-L,  31 days.                                          Earliest start and end date = 5                                                    Latest start = 28, and end date 31                                       Float A= 4, B= 3, C = 9, D = 6, E = 6, F= 9, G= 3, H = 3, I= 9, J= 7, K= 6, L=0























10) Activity network




Mod. A (5)

Specification (14)



Mod. B (10)                              14


Testing                              planning

Mod. C (10)                                             8                                                                                      21







Earliest start date 14 days, latest start date 24 days.

Earliest finish date 61 days, latest finish date 82 days.

Shortest project duration 45 days.


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Golpayegani, S., Parvaresh, F. (2011). The logical precedence network planning of projects, considering the finish-to-start (FS) relations, using neural networks. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 55(9-12), 1123-1133.

Hughes, .B & Cotterell, .M (1999) software project management.

Human, W. J. Steyn, H (2013) Establishing project management guidelines for successfully managing resettlement projects. South African Journal of Business Management 44(3), 1-14.

James J. O. Fredric L. P. (2010). PDM and Precedence Networks. CPM in Construction.Management, Seventh Edition.

Kim, H., Feamster, N. (2013). Improving network management with software defined networking. IEEE Communications Magazine, 51(2), 114-119.

Mohan, K.K., Verma, A. K., Srividya, A. (2011). An Effective Early Software Reliability Prediction. Procedure for Process Oriented Development at Prototype Level Employing Artificial Neural Networks. International Journal of Reliability, Quality & Safety. Engineering 18(3), 237-250.

Norman, E.S. Fried, R.T. Brotherton, S. A. (2011). Work Breakdown Structures: The Foundation for Project Management Excellence. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

Pollard, C.E (2012). Lessons Learned from Client Projects in an Undergraduate Project Management Course. Journal of Information Systems Education 23(3), 271-282.

Tatikonda, M. V., Rosenthal, S.R. (2009). Successful Execution of Product Development Projects: The Effects of Project Management Formality, Autonomy and Resource Flexibility.

Woolridge, R. W., Hale, D.P., Hale, J.E., Sharpe, R. S. (2009). Software Project Scope Alignment: An Outcome-Based Approach. Communications of the ACM. 52(7), 147-152.