1) Planning is a difficult process in project management that requires a framework of basic steps so that a desired result is achieved. The stepwise planning process serves as a guide towards this, enhancing production with regard to activity (Abdel et. al 2009). The products created include system products, module products, and management products. These may be tangible products, modified versions of an existing product, or even products developed from scratch, such as software. The result of system products can be overall specifications, integration test cases, or tested integrated software. Those of module products include module design documents and module codes, while the management product is a progress report, which runs throughout the entire project (Hughes, 1999).
2) Before an activity test program takes place, there has to be other preceding products the test depends on which have to be completed. Some of these products may be deliverables, hence can be handed over to the client at the end, while others may be intermediate, only serving to shape the end product. They include technical products such as training equipment and functional commands, management products such as documentation details, and quality products which affect the final outcome (Hughes, 1999). In turn, this activity creates a hierarchical product, whereby the main product will have a few other sets of component products, which may also have other sub-sets.
3) The first step in creating the work plan to ensure the task complements the project involves establishing the relationship between the project and the strategic plan. The project has to have activities, which create the final product. Simply stating ‘learning new method’ does not offer deliverables, which the task can be based on. From there, the employee can consider the user requirements vis-a-vis the stipulated time and expected outcome (Human et. al, 2013). This helps take into account the number of activities to be carried out, and plans them as per the time available, thereby, developing a methodology. Eventually, he can generate an activity network which will be able to suit his work plan, enabling him achieve the desired result of teaching the systems analysis and design method.
4) a. Product breakdown structure
Product flow diagram.
Preliminary Activity Network
5) a. There might be concern that the new project may not adapt with the old methodologies because new systems are more integrated and complex that older systems. Old systems are unidirectional, thus, may exhibit just one method of doing things. (Woodridge, 2009) They may, as such, be able to assist in developing the framework for the evolution of a new system, based on the initial concepts used in the structured systems.
With the new system, analysis and thorough research will be done so that simulations can develop a system that properly augurs with the desired property market. Consultations with the relevant professionals as well as the economic implications of the model will be discussed at length. This will result in the new model being too complex to be handled by the old systems, leading to the development of new systems framework and a more prototype approach (Tatikonda et. al, 2009).
6) a. The software prototype would be of value because it changes and improves the organizational activities. The procedures will become more effective and efficient due to the application of information and communication technology (Mohan et. al, 2011). In a general rundown, it will improve the package’s capacity to, it will increase efficiency to data access, the quality of service will be improved, costs will be reduced, and there will be enhanced decision making.
Prototyping can be controlled through investigating product requirements. This implies being fed with information on constant changes. It enables the software keep up with developing trends. It can also be controlled through improving the ability of those involved in the design and execution of the project so that various contextual attributes can be handled. By being alert on the total project cost, it helps in being able to invest in the project while it is still viable. (Pollard, 2012)The leadership of the project also plays a vital role as the stronger the management, the more orderly and effective the project.
7) a. the physical dependencies that will help create a sequence in the activity and govern the order in which transactions are carried out include the user, the supplier, and the executive (the owner of the system). (Hughes, 1999)
8) a. To the student:
8) b. To the engineering company:
9) Precedence activity network Critical path = A-B-G-H-L, 31 days. Earliest start and end date = 5 Latest start = 28, and end date 31 Float A= 4, B= 3, C = 9, D = 6, E = 6, F= 9, G= 3, H = 3, I= 9, J= 7, K= 6, L=0
10) Activity network
Mod. A (5)
Mod. B (10) 14
Mod. C (10) 8 21
Earliest start date 14 days, latest start date 24 days.
Earliest finish date 61 days, latest finish date 82 days.
Shortest project duration 45 days.
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