Present the pros and cons of each of the following approaches to managing projects:
Provide a solid recommendation with supporting information on the approach you believe is more successful.
Once a man’s understanding has settled on something (either because it is an accepted belief or because it pleases him), it draws everything else also to support and agree with it. And if it encounters a larger number of more powerful countervailing examples, it either fails to notice them, or disregards them, or makes fine distinctions to dismiss and reject them, and all this with much dangerous prejudice, to preserve the authority of its first Conceptions.” This hints that the confirmation bias can be hazardous and lead to ignorance and egotism, however, it is a powerful tool that can be utilised in medicine, as it has similar foundations and mechanisms to the placebo effect. The Mechanism of the Placebo Effect As aforementioned, the vital concept and origin of the placebo effect lies in belief and persuasive mental activities, resulting in substantially powerful mind-body interactions . There are two main sets of mechanisms which maintain and sustain the placebo effect; appraisals and precognitive associations. Precognitive associations are innate responses to external and internal stimuli that can occur without cognitive engagement. These responses are specific to certain stimuli and they are learned and based on experience, as only from experience can the correct neural pathways be formed in the nervous system. The placebo effect mimics pavlovian conditioning in some ways. In humans, the placebo effect is commonly delivered through pharmacological conditioning, in which over several, usually consecutive, days, both drugs and drug cues are given to the subject, and then eventually, only the drug cues are given. This often results in changes to hormonal and immune functions in the body, which are then unresponsive to verbal cues negating the use of the drugs. At this stage, it is assumed that the subject’s belief and power of mind supports the effect of the drug cues, resulting in a stable outcome . Research conducted on the role of explicit verbal information in conditioned analgesia concludes that the meaning allocated to the drug cue engages the cerebrum and produces a learning process, from which the neural pathways are formed . Without this meaning and association, the stimuli is insufficient independently and a response will not be induced.>GET ANSWER