Organizational Theory and Bureaucratic Structures
- Discuss the history of public organization theory beginning with Woodrow Wilson and ending with a discussion of networks, collaboration, and the New Public Service.
The definition of consciousness varies depending on the theoretical and biological framework that is being considered. Psychoanalysts describe consciousness as the interaction between the external perception of the environment via sensory organs and internal perception of self (Solms, 1997). Thus, perceiving the world using vision, sight, sound, touch, and taste – and integrating that information into psychological or emotional states, such as anger, fear, happiness, pain, etc, – that is unique to the individual constitutes consciousness. Biologically, consciousness is a result of the neurological processes that occur in the brain (Miller, 2005). By incorporating both perspectives of consciousness, alterations and disorders in consciousness can be better understood. Impaired consciousness is associated with brain damage or injury due to trauma, degenerative diseases, infections of the central nervous system, or metabolic disorders (Giacino et al., 2013). Notable impaired states of consciousness are the vegetative state (VS) and the minimally conscious state (MCS). The vegetative state is characterized by brainstem autonomic and hypothalamic function, the appearance of sleep-wake cycles, and the absence of the awareness of self or the environment (Giacino et al., 2013). Patients in a vegetative state are also unable to respond purposefully to noxious stimuli, express or understand language. However, they may have cranial nerve and spinal reflexes, such as swallowing, blinking, and knee-jerk reflexes (Shea et al., 2013; Laureys et al., 2002). The vegetative state is usually the consequence of a coma that lasts for longer than a month and can be categorized into either a persistent vegetative state, or permanent vegetative state. A coma due to a traumatic brain injury that persists for over 12 months or a coma due to a non-traumatic brain injury that persists for over 3 months is considered a permanent vegetative state. A coma that lasts more than a month is considered a persistent vegetative state (Georgiopoulos et al., 2010). Patients in a permanent vegetative state are less likely to recover compared to those in a persistent vegetative state. During wake cycles, the eyes open and move but do not fixate on a particular target and the li>GET ANSWER