What does it mean to gather quantitative data appropriately? Quantitative data is putting concepts or variables into measurement form using numbers. Thus, researchers have come up with many ways to measure concepts related to human behavior and psychology, such as mental disorders, satisfaction with services, effectiveness indicators, and more. For example, you may be familiar with the process of converting your grades into a grade point average (GPA). Your grades are converted into numbers, where an “A” is equal to four points, a “B” is equal to 3 points, etc. The total number of points for all of your grades is divided by the number of credits you have taken and attempted to calculate your GPA.
When gathering quantitative data, the measurement or instrument tool you use ideally needs to have been tested several times with a wide sample of individuals to determine its validity and reliability within acceptable parameters. Otherwise, the data obtained from the measurements or instruments will not have much meaning. It is especially important that quantitative data also be collected in appropriate situations and settings and that the instruments are appropriate for the individuals involved in the study (for example, using the right reading levels and language). For many researchers, quantitative data and methods are believed to reduce bias and other errors through their use of valid, reliable instruments, the scientific method, and appropriate statistical procedures to analyze the gathered data.
In this discussion, you will explore the constructs of validity and reliability in quantitative data and research.
• In the context of research, how is “credible” defined?
• How do you achieve credible validity and reliability so that your research is considered meaningful by your community (instructor, peers, colleagues, as well as others)?
• What are the important processes and steps involved in gathering quantitative data?
Levels of measurement are also important, and you will gain an understanding of their importance and how to decide which level of measurement you will employ in your quantitative study, if you are running one. Finally, you will reflect on how likely you are to employ secondary analysis or clinical data mining for your own research project.
Both quantitative and qualitative research have pros and cons. Understanding them will enable you to make the best decisions about which to use in your research, as well as why you would make certain decisions.
- In your textbook Practice-Based Research in Social Work: A Guide for Reluctant Researchers, read Chapter 8, “Quantitative Data Gathering.”
- Read the article “Creating Experimental Analogs with Available Clinical Information: Credible Alternatives to Gold Standard Experiments?”
- Navigate to the threaded discussion and respond to the following:
a. What is quantitative data gathering, and what does it consist of?
b. How are reliability and validity achieved in quantitative methods? How is bias avoided?
c. Why is it important to identify levels of measurement, and which levels are best in quantitative research? How do you know or determine the levels of measurement?
d. What is the likelihood that you will use secondary analysis or clinical data mining (or even mixed methods) for your research project? Discuss pros and cons of each, as well as ethical issues or concerns.
- Your posts should also:
a. Give clear answers with the demonstration of evidence of critical and analytical thinking.
b. Add greater depth to the discussion by introducing ideas and concepts as they relate to the themes identified in the workshop.
c. use references from article and chapter
New Treatment Plans Give Hope to Patients with Gaucher's Disease Katherine Van: https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/I4Qf9ynR2vumIfvpj1Rx7LBCqmqr44Q9EDDzsM5zNwMtuS2oAMuQGHsaFg7RYHHg3rxoUgHQEU1Jwt9bKL439EE9_E9Nn_-syFRdzQSJegTP- - 4FLS2aKJH2Bv3FiXjW2Q Gaucher's ailment happens inside people since they come up short on the catalyst glucocerebrosidase in the body, which is in charge of separating greasy substances called glucocerebroside. Thus, a lot of greasy substances can develop and remain in the liver, spleen, lungs, bone marrow and mind in view of the harmed and absence of glucocerebrosidase. Thus, the ailment is additionally called glucocerebrosidase inadequacy. Any age gathering can be determined to have this sickness, yet studies demonstrate that there is a higher level of the illness in Eastern and Central European Jewish individuals. There are numerous sorts of Gaucher's infection. The main structure is called non-neuronopathic Gaucher's ailment since it doesn't target and harm the focal sensory system. The side effects are: Diminishing of bones Extraordinary bone agony and bone breaks Augmented liver Augmented spleen Low measures of solid red platelets Extreme weakness Powerlessness to wounding Low measures of blood platelets Yellow spots in the eyes Customary nosebleeds https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/L_C8g8O4Mhz8ku_AC2mnm_lIugwtAtwnXaywJ8KaxXrKS81D10a6ke6V4kDOm5Ds4ROGWx023hB8M3OtEoZEoE1eVCAy3KQkgtnjC-nYqf869BRdReH5jwFmIFuihB1ePghttps://lh3.googleusercontent.com/rtTft7qeHvqaGpxjhJr82VvvAHBzLLwWLGDj5Yv05L8bRz5-OZtz5MMlkSmZrDi_S9MZequrL-7y45rG-3uwkvzJFqIKtrl7zzq36iu8Fy8uFFNOYppU6kvysPBXEHaO-g The second kind of Gaucher's illness is neuronopathic and it very well may be perilous in light of the fact that it harms the focal sensory system. Children following three months of birth can be determined to have this type of Gaucher's illness. Its side effects are like the non-neuronopathic structure, however it likewise incorporates: Cerebrum issues, including dementia Extreme resoluteness Seizures The last type of Gaucher's infection is called perinatal deadly and it is the most serious sort. Truth be told, most newborn children with perinatal deadly bite the dust following a couple of long periods of birth. The side effects recorded underneath: Broad swelling because of liquid amassing Dry and flaky skin Genuine neurological issues https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/nN6Nvh30_EMx8llbGZC6uVg1KVeqyGrH2iwaKfmAzL2DZtmssNJoxgzzJmNmjCAMmjb63KUwbsXpfkxapyytLKWafeQ2UZ6jUrQV0gTM8LWOAixUpHzDMJGx8iTG8Zx3MQ Gaucher's infection creates because of transformations in the GBA quality. The GBA quality is in charge of making glucocerebrosidase proteins, which rearranges glucocerebroside particles into sugars and littler fat atoms. In any case, transformations in the GBA quality effect the capacity of the compounds to work appropriately. Thus, the a lot of greasy substances cause organ disappointment. Patients can be determined to have Gaucher's illness in light of a legacy example called autosomal latent. The guardians must be bearers of a Gaucher's hereditary transformation all together for the youngsters to have Gaucher's ailment. In any case, there is just a 25 percent chance that their tyke will be determined to have the sickness. https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/xZxc39V63Caic0u2FViWGmd8oispCHGWX5MyQ8npoXdInyP0XNeZSHrQD7fpcltN3LTItUoNTLEh5HmRcbH0jTsdEHWq7RcHaeY8uMJNg5cb0Na7NSS3vHrAnW-E74lSaQ So as to recognize and follow the movement of Gaucher's malady inside patients, a progression of determination and tests are utilized. Chemical examination uses blood tests to recognize a patient's degrees of glucocerebrosidase. In the event that Gaucher's malady was dynamic in the patient, there are low degrees of glucocerebrosidase in the blood. Then again, transporters have chemical levels between the influenced and unaffected individuals who are not bearers. Another test is known as the hereditary transformation examination and it attempts to discover changes in the qualities partner with Gaucher's illness. Be that as it may, not the majority of the hereditary transformations associated with Gaucher's ailment have been recognized; along these lines this test is utilized to help order which kind of Gaucher's malady patients have. So as to gauge the movement of the ailment, double vitality X-beam absorptiometry (DXA), and attractive reverberation imaging (MRI) can likewise be utilized. DXA uses low vitality X-beams to gauge bone thickness, while MRI utilizes attractive fields and radio waves to make pictures of organs. X-ray can demonstrate organ amplification, for example, the spleen or liver. Also, specialists perform pre-birth testing in pregnant ladies that are bearers of Gaucher's ailment to test if Gaucher's malady is dynamic in the baby. Specialists will examine the amniotic liquid or tissues from the placenta to finish the pre-birth testing. https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/nZf5pJAeeen5e5_LclG2RIlifSbvRD7mFRicmsxFcEPsLWoZhQ24K2_ClTLjbod7HV94xJXqx0VTs4k_RqQ- - 6SACu2zapGhQmTzRJYwPWXxsFM_V8L1LBXNeSZjd3A97QGaucher's illness can't be restored; it is just controlled or overseen. The kind of treatment given to patients differs relying upon the sort and seriousness of Gaucher's malady and state of patients. One treatment given is the chemical substitution treatment, where substitution compounds in fluid substances are infused into the veins of patients at regular intervals. This sort of treatment is viable inside people with non-neuronopathic Gaucher's illness. All things considered, individuals may normally encounter an unfavorably susceptible response to the chemical treatment. Another treatment technique accessible is the bone-marrow transplantation. This is a surgery that is utilized for serious instances of Gaucher's sickness, where harmed blood-framing cells are expelled and supplanted. Nonetheless, this medicinal treatment isn't as normal as the protein substitution treatment since it has more dangers and perils. Finally, drug can likewise be utilized to deal with Gaucher's illness. The oral prescription miglustat (Zavesca) is a compelling medication that limits the development of the greasy substances in non-neuronopathic Gaucher's ailment. By the by, the medicine can cause symptoms in the stomach related framework, for example, the runs and, weight reduction. Besides, the medication can likewise meddle with sperm generation. In women, contraception is exhorted while utilizing miglustat and for a quarter of a year after they quit utilizing the medication. In December 2001, Genzyme, a Sanofi Company finished an investigation to think about the viability of a medication, Cerezyme, in two diverse measurements sums in their patients with Gaucher's illness. The two guys and females ages 18 and more established were qualified for study. In any case, just patients with sort 1, non-neuronopathic Gaucher's sickness were permitted to take an interest. There were numerous exploration focuses that taken an interest in the lab, incorporating eighteen in the United States, one in Canada, six in Europe, and one in Brazil. During the examination, 90 members were randomized and set into two gatherings. The principal gathering of individuals got their month to month portion of Cerezyme in two imbuements; one implantation for each two weeks (Q2). The second gathering of people got their month to month dose in one imbuement consistently (Q4). The movement of the impacts of the medication on the Gaucher's infection was checked by estimating the hemoglobin esteems and platelet tally of patients. Attractive reverberation imaging and PC tomography were additionally used to investigate any upgrades in the patient's liver and spleen conditions. Besides, analysts attempted to distinguish if the adjustment in measurements diminished the manifestations of patients, for example, weakness, defenselessness to wounding and yellow spots in the eyes. Genzyme accepted that patients who got one imbuement like clockwork would demonstrate a progressively positive response towards their non-neuronopathic Gaucher's illness in light of the fact that there was a more extended timeframe in the middle of the month to month measurements sessions of Q4. Thus, this could cause an inadequacy of all the supplanted glucocerebrosidase toward the part of the bargain. On the other hand, Q2 would be increasingly settled on the grounds that the chemical glucocerebroside would be supplanted like clockwork. In principle, before every month's over, just 50% of the compound glucocerebroside would be inadequate. Likewise, the discoveries of the lab, showed in table one, demonstrated that 80.8% of the members of Q2 Cerezyme indicated clinical achievement, while there was just 63.2% of clinical accomplishment inside people utilizing Q4 Cerezyme. Henceforth, Q2 was a superior medication recurrence as far as security and adequacy. Q2 Cerezyme Q4 Cerezyme Number of Participants Analyzed 26 57 Number of members with Clinical Success 21 36 Extent of members with Clinical Success 80.8% 63.2% Table 1: Number of Participants with Clinical Success after the Completion of the Clinical Trial The diagram above depicts the quantity of members that indicated upgrades in their Gaucher's malady in contrast with their condition before the clinical preliminary. For instance, a few members saw a decrease of side effects, for example, outrageous tiredness, wounding, yellow spots in the eyes, and nosebleeds. Too, there were a few enhancements in hemoglobin esteems, platelet check, and liver and spleen conditions. A comparable lab was directed to test the viability of two measurement sums in a protein substitution treatment on February 1, 2007. The worldwide forte biopharmaceutical organization, Shire, needed to test VPRIV, a hydrolytic lysosomal glucocerebrosidase-explicit protein, that was utilized in long haul compound supplanting treatment for patients with sort 1 Gaucher's ailment. The controlled variable of the examination were the 45 and 60 U/kg doses of VPRIV, otherwise called velaglucerase alfa (GA-GCB), given to patients with sort one Gaucher's ailment. Shire additionally utilized arbitrary preliminaries to separate the members into two gatherings that got the dose each other week. All things considered, one gathering got 45 U/kg and the other gathering got 60 U/kg of VPRIV. Ages two and more established of the two sexual orientations were permitted to take part in the investigation. The length of treatmen>GET ANSWER