A researcher collects a set of 60 news articles about recent statements by Vladimir Putin
about Syria. The set includes 22 articles from The Sun, 18 from The New York Times, 11
from the Washington Post, 5 from the Boston Globe, and 4 from the Chicago Tribune.
a) If one article is selected at random, what is the probability it is not from the Globe or
b) If three articles are selected at random (without replacement), what is the probability
that at least one is from the Globe or Tribune?

Consider a training program designed to help immigrants incorporate into local communities.
Suppose event A is a participant leaving the program before it ends, with P(A) = 0:23,
event B is a participant having limited English prociency, with P(B) = 0:40, and event C
is obtaining a job in the rst week, with P(C) = 0:55. Suppose that events A and B are
independent and events B and C are mutually exclusive.
a) What is the probability that a participant leaves the program or has limited English
b) What is the probability that a participant either has limited English prociency, or
obtains a job in the rst week?

In Congressional elections, donors contribute vast sums of money. These donors hope to
in uence the political decisions that Senators make in their favor. The best way to in uence
a Senator is to schedule meetings with him/her. Consider this (ctional) example: In the
last election cycle, of all donors to Senator Crawford, 5% were big donors, 25% were medium
donors, and 70% were small donors. 95% of the big donors, 30% of the medium donors, and
1% of the small donors were successful in scheduling meetings with Senator Crawford.

a) If one donor is selected at random and we learn that this donor did not get a meeting
scheduled with Senator Crawford, what is the probability of this donor being a medium
b) If one donor is selected at random and we learn that this donor did get a meeting
scheduled with Senator Crawford, what is the probability of this donor being a big

Using your nal project data, identify one variable of interest that is binary or (quasi-)
continuous. This variable should be important to your paper { perhaps one of your primary
a) Describe the variable substantively and its (expected) role in your paper.
b) Calculate the sample proportion, mean, or a dierence in means for that variable { ^p,
or x, or YT ? YC.
c) Calculate the standard error around that ^p, x, or YT ? YC.
d) Form a 95% condence interval around that ^p, x, or YT ? YC.
e) Substantively interpret your condence interval. (\If we had access to 100 other sam-
ples of . . . and formed similar intervals, we’d expect . . . )

Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.