‘rationalism’ and ’empiricism’

Both Plato and Descartes are considered to be ‘rationalists’ and both Locke and Berkeley are considered to be ’empiricists’.

Please help me understand what the epistemological doctrines of ‘rationalism’ and ’empiricism’ are, and how these doctrines are illustrated by the work of the four philosophers mentioned. In what ways are these four philosophers NOT representatives of the epistemological doctrines with which they are usually identified?

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