When considering the world of relationships between variables, it is a common mistake to assume causation when a correlation is present. A high correlation between variables does not necessarily indicate causation. A study may show that there is a positive correlation between salary and the quality of work of individual employees in that the more employees are paid, the better their performance. However, there may be no causation because other factors may impact the quality of an individual’s work, such as training and experience. Also, consider if there is a positive correlation between employee training and quality of work of individual employees. Should a researcher safely assume that a causal relationship exists here in that the better training that employees receive, the better their performance? While strong correlations prompt researchers to take notice of possible causality, researchers must also be aware of attentional bias and prior beliefs when interpreting correlations. It is, therefore, important to examine how causation is established. In this Discussion, you will distinguish between the two concepts of causation and correlation and apply them to your potential Doctoral Study.
To prepare for this Discussion, review Lesson 31 in the Green and Salkind (2017) text and consider the correlation to your potential Doctoral Study topic. Your potential topic may or may not be appropriate for correlational methods, but for the purpose of this Discussion, assume it is.
By Day 3
Post an analysis of the difference between causation and correlation within the context of your DBA doctoral research study. In your analysis, do the following:
Assess the implications for professional practice when a researcher implies causation after using correlation (e.g., bivariate correlation) analyses.
Explain why the results of bivariate correlation analyses are considered weak in terms of internal validity.
Explain how would you extend or modify a research design to examine a true cause-and-effect relationship.
Green growth show differing degrees of intricacy relying upon the association of their phones. Macroalgae, phytoplankton and cyanobacteria may colonize marine, saline or crisp waters wherever states of light, temperature and supplements are ideal. Cyanobacteria have been to a great extent considered in new water frameworks, because of their capacity to multiply, to shape enormous surface scums, and to create poisons that have been ensnared in creature or human harming. A few types of green growth may likewise contain poisons, yet episodes where crisp water green growth are at the source of instances of human or creature sickness have from time to time been accounted for. Shaded lethal tides caused by algal abundance have been known to exist for a long time. Actually the Bible (Exodus, 7: 20-24) expresses "all the water of the Nile waterway wound up red as blood and fish which were in the stream kicked the bucket. What's more, the waterway was harmed and the Egyptians couldn't drink its waters". Algal sprouts were seen in 1638 by anglers in north west of Iceland. Fjords were accounted for to be recolored dark red and amid the night delivered a sort of glow. The anglers felt that the hues could be because of the blood of battling whales or to some marine creepy crawlies or plants (Olafsson and Palmsson, 1772). The primary logical report of residential creatures kicking the bucket from harming as an outcome of drinking water that was influenced by a blue/green growth sprout was in 1878 in lake Alexandrina, Australia. In waterfront and estuarine frameworks, in any case, where conditions are less ideal to the multiplication of cyanobacteria, which require oligo-components, for example, press, harmful green growth, for example, dinoflagellates have been watched and have been at the starting point of wellbeing inconveniences. There is developing proof that supplements, particularly nitrogen, support the span and recurrence of such poisonous "sprouts", and groupings of poison in the cells. Wellbeing impacts connected to poisons of cyanobacteria in crisp waters Some cyanobacteria have the ability to deliver poisons hazardous to people. Poisons can be discovered either free in the water where the sprout happens or bound to the algal or cyanobacterial cell. At the point when the phones are youthful (amid the development stage), 70 to 90% of the poisons are cell bound, while when the cells Cyanobacteria have been to a great extent considered in new water frameworks, because of their capacity to multiply, to shape huge surface scums, and to create poisons that have been embroiled in creature or human harming. A few types of green growth may likewise contain poisons, however episodes where crisp water green growth are at the beginning of instances of human or creature disease have occasionally been accounted for. Shaded poisonous tides caused by algal excess have been known to exist for a long time. Actually the Bible (Exodus, 7: 20-24) expresses "all the water of the Nile stream ended up red as blood and fish which were in the waterway passed on. Furthermore, the waterway was harmed and the Egyptians couldn't drink its waters". Algal blossoms were seen in 1638 by anglers in north west of Iceland. Fjords were accounted for to be recolored dark red and amid the night delivered a sort of glow. The anglers suspected that the hues could be because of the blood of battling whales or to some marine creepy crawlies or plants (Olafsson and Palmsson, 1772). The principal logical report of household creatures kicking the bucket from harming as an outcome of drinking water that was influenced by a blue/green growth blossom was in 1878 in lake Alexandrina, Australia. In seaside and estuarine frameworks, be that as it may, where conditions are less great to the multiplication of cyanobacteria, which require oligo-components, for example, press, poisonous green growth, for example, dinoflagellates have been watched and have been at the birthplace of wellbeing inconveniences. There is developing confirmation that supplements, particularly nitrogen, support the span and recurrence of such lethal "blossoms", and groupings of poison in the cells. Wellbeing impacts connected to poisons of cyanobacteria in crisp waters Some cyanobacteria have the ability to deliver poisons unsafe to individuals. Poisons can be discovered either free in the water where the sprout happens or bound to the algal or cyanobacterial cell. At the point when the phones are youthful (amid the development stage), 70 to 90% of the poisons are cell bound, while when the cells new waters. Individuals might be presented to poisons through the utilization of defiled drinking water, coordinate contact with new water or the inward breath of mist concentrates. Poisons actuate harm in creatures and people by acting at the atomic level and thusly influencing cells, tissues and organs (Table 3). The apprehensive, stomach related, respiratory and cutaneous frameworks might be influenced. Auxiliary impacts can be seen in various organs. Age or physiological states of the influenced individual may decide the seriousness of the side effects. An assortment of side effects, contingent upon the poisons ensnared, are watched, for example, weakness, cerebral pain, loose bowels, retching, sore throat, fever and skin aggravations. Cyanotoxins can be ordered into three gatherings: â€¢ Hepatotoxins. These are the most every now and again watched cyanotoxins. Investigations utilizing mice demonstrate that they cause liver damage and can prompt passing from liver discharge and cardiovascular disappointment inside a couple of hours of introduction at intense measurements. Ceaseless presentation initiates liver damage and advances the development of tumors. Inquiries remain concerning the impacts of rehashed exposures to low levels of poisons. Creature tests have indicated liver damage from rehashed oral presentation to microcystins, the most much of the time watched cyanotoxins. It is believed that the high prevalence13 of liver malignancy saw in a few territories of China could be because of the nearness of microcystins in water supplies. â€¢ Neurotoxins. These are by and large less normal and follow up on the sensory system. In mice and oceanic winged animals, they cause fast demise by respiratory capture, once in a while happening in almost no time. â€¢ Dermatotoxins. These incite aggravation and allergenic reactions in tissues by basic contact. The worldwide harmfulness of a cyanobacterial expansion isn't steady in time or space, making it hard to survey the wellbeing risk albeit some intense poisonings have prompted passing (Tables 3 and 4). The arrival of cyanotoxins in water has been at the source of a few flare-ups influencing creature or human wellbeing (Case examines p. f12). Around 75% of cyanobacterial sprouts are joined by poison generation. The nearness of cyanobacterial poisons after potabilization treatment speaks to a wellbeing danger for patients experiencing renal dialysis treatment. Checking of eutrophication Checking is helpful on the off chance that it is performed for a reason. The primary explanations behind checking a water body for eutrophication are: â€¢ To keep the occurence of eutrophication; â€¢ Early cautioning purposes. General wellbeing specialists need to know when eutrophication is probably going to begin so as to enable them to execute preventive activities; â€¢ To know the level of improvement of the procedure, and have an exact photo of the nature of the water. This is generally significant for water organizations, which need to manage eutrophic waters; â€¢ Research. Actually observing frameworks are regularly multipurpose. Observing and administration of cyanobacterial development in crisp waters for general wellbeing purposes Tune and Bartram (1999) have proposed the accompanying observing and administration plan to water treatment plant administrators and chiefs as an alarm level structure. It gives a graduated reaction to the beginning and advance of a cyanobacteria sprout. This device at first originates from Australia. Three reaction levels are characterized: â€¢ Vigilance Level is characterized by the location of one province, or five fibers, of a cyanobacterium in a 1 ml water test. At the point when the Vigilance Level is surpassed, it is prescribed that the influenced water body is inspected all the more much of the time - in any event once every week, with the goal that conceivably fast changes in cyanobacteria biomass can be observed. â€¢ Alert Level 1 is started when 2,000 cyanobacterial cells for each ml or 0.2 mm3/l biovolume23 or 1 Î¼g/l chlorophyll-a24 are recognized. Ready Level 1 condition requires an evaluation to be made of the aggregate poison focus in the crude water. A meeting ought to be held with the wellbeing specialists for on-going evaluation of the status of the blossom and of the appropriateness of treated water for human utilization. Checking ought to be directed in any event once every week. It might likewise be fitting right now to issue warning notification to the general population through the media or different means. Government divisions or intrigued experts or those with legitimate obligations ought to likewise be reached, as should associations that treat or look after individuals from the general population with unique needs. â€¢ Alert Level 2 is started when 100,000 cells for every ml or 10-mm3/l biovolume or 50 Î¼g/l chlorophyll-an are recognized, with the nearness of poisons affirmed by concoction or bioassay systems. This thickness of cells relates to a set up, lethal sprout with high biomass and perhaps at the same time confined scums. In this circumstance there is a requirement for viable water treatment frameworks and an evaluation of the execution of the framework. Hydro-physical measures to decrease cyanobacteria development may in any case be endeavored. On the off chance that effective water medicines are not accessible (see specialized add), a possibility water supply design ought to be actuated. In outrageous circumstances, safe drinking water ought to be provided to buyers in tanks and jugs. Media discharges and contact with purchasers ought to be embraced by means of mail of handouts educating that water may exhibit peril for human utilization yet is as yet reasonable for the motivations behind washing, clothing and can flushing. National water quality observing projects Scarcely any national water quality observing projects incorporate parameters which show eutrophication or a danger of algal or>GET ANSWER