RELIGION, DEMOCRACY AND TERRORISM: A CASE OF EGYPTIAN BROTHERHOOD
what is the relationship of democracy, relgion and terrorism in the case of egypt and the muslim brootherhood
15000 words dissertation no plagiarism it will be checked, english must be perfect, its contentious work from order number 82058834 i will attach your work, i will need updates every week you must upload draft,on the top of every page only this number must be written (4297835) i will send you with additional instruction later on, you start the research plzzz it has to be perfect.
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Background Information
The 21st century that was expected to be a peaceful time has been marred by turbulent times with violence that manifests itself in forms of terrorism, ethnic massacres, bomb blasts, women atrocities, and cultural genocide. Despite increased technological growth and development in sociological areas of human discipline, continental as well as the regional relationship has been turning volatile (Kingsley, 2010). Terrorism is one of the major global peace threats in the modern world. Terrorism, which can be considered to be substrate application of violence or threatened violence intended to show societal panic and a particular change, has resulted in numerous implications in the contemporary world (Aktan, 2004). In this regard, the diverse motivations of the contemporary upsurge regarding terrorist attacks are a major consideration and subject for research by independent scholars and international institutions like the UN. The goal is to establish countermeasures for terrorism.
The rise of terrorist activities that are conducted in the name of Islam has raised questions regarding the relationship between terrorism and religion (Hughes, 2017). The question of governance has also impacted significantly on rising terrorism. The case of Egypt demonstrates an example of contemporary issues that relate to modern terrorism. With the current political situation in Egypt, it is imperative to evaluate critically its implications towards the growth of waves of terrorism. Scholars have argued that Muslim Brotherhood, an Islamic movement founded in Egypt, has a critical role to play in modern terrorism developments. For example, El-Sherif (2014) opines that Brotherhood has been facing a massive challenge in balancing Islamic principles with the popular democratic demands as well as socioeconomic reforms. This is contrary to the popular belief before its rise to power that its political inclusion in the country would lead towards its democratization and moderation. In this respect, calls have been to investigate its ideological and organizational failures and what implications they have towards global peace.
1.2 Problem Statement
Scholars of terrorism and other international organizations have been studying the connection between religion, democracy, and terrorism (Dalacoura, 2006). However, the literature of democracy and religion and terrorism has not attained a popular verdict. Some scholars posit that democracy mitigates terrorism (Cinoglu, 2010). Such studies are built on the notion of the inverse relationship between political freedom and the potential of terrorism. The argument is that democracies have political freedom and representation that is not present in repressive states that give its citizens an opportunity to select leaders, air grievances, and pursue political ambitions through political channels rather than resulting to terrorism. On the other hand, religion is considered to have been used as a motivation in which terrorists draw inspiration from. Cinoglu (2010) argues that religious imperatives have a significant potential that leads to violent activities due to the creation of “us vs. them” notion. Religion offers its followers a unique value system for legitimizing approved acts. However, terrorist groups such as Al-Qaida purport to defend sanity and religious principles in their actions. In this regard, the connection between religion and terrorism has remained a dilemma.
It has been unclear how Brotherhood has impacted towards Egyptian and global terrorism considering their nonviolence calls. Crane (2005) noted that Brotherhood is a widespread Islamic organization that has been seeking to Islamize societies and compels the governments to adhere to the sharia law. However, the group has supported or even used violence leading to its frequent ban in Egypt. It is in this regard that political scholars have been associating it with terrorism. For example, Aziz (2017) argued that the rise of terrorism that is conducted in the name of Islam raises the question regarding the connection between religion and Islam. She further argued that a free marketplace regarding religious ideology would provide the required political space for the religious scholars to challenge the success of Al Qaeda openly. In this regard, it is imperative to investigate further whether religious organizations have any connection with increased terrorism considering the nonviolence calls from Brotherhood.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between democracy, religion, and terrorism using Egypt’s Brotherhood as the case of reference. Various studies have refuted the connection of the three issues indicating that terrorism should be researched independently. In her research, Dalacoura (2006) indicated that there is no evidence of the existence of a causal relationship between the democratic deficit in the Middle East and Islamic terrorism. In this regard, this research will seek to explore the democratic notions and lack of it, and how it leads to terrorism. Also, the research seeks to establish a whether there is a connection between religious freedom and terrorism. Specifically, the research will evaluate the research questions below to meet the research objectives highlighted.
To establish the relationship of democracy, religion, and terrorism in the case of Egypt and Muslim Brotherhood.
To investigate the connection between Muslim Brotherhood and terrorism in the country.
To find out whether democratic and religious freedom or lack of it impacts on terrorism growth.
1.3.2 Research Question
What is the relationship of democracy, religion, and terrorism in the case of Egypt and Muslim Brotherhood?
Does Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt facilitate terrorism in the country?
To what extent does religious and democratic freedom or lack of it impact on terrorism growth?
1.4 Theoretical Applications
Various theoretical propositions have been put across regarding behavioral preferences and their quest for global interrelations. An example is functionalism and religion and its impact on global relations. Cinoglu (2010) argued that religion is a social institution that has crucial tasks regarding societal survival. In this regard, most of the functionalists don’t question the existence of religion but rather its function. According to them, religion functions in a manner to encourage and support evolution over revolution. An analysis of the case of Egypt would, therefore, imply that Brotherhood only seeks a revolution for a better society. On the contrary, the theory of conflict and religion offers different and opposing propositions regarding the functions of society. Unlike the functionalists, the proponents of conflict theory see religion as a tool that is used by the powerful in their efforts to exploit the weak. According to Cinoglu (2010), these thinkers assert that members of the bourgeoise class who own the means of production created a religion to keep proletariat (workers) under constant supervision. In this case, religious conflict theorists can argue that Islamic organizations that support terrorism do so by creating a false notion of comfort among the followers.
An investigation of symbolic interactionism and terrorism also offers profound information regarding the behavior of religious institutions and their impact on social relations. Cinoglu (2010) noted that symbolic interactionist theory mostly endeavors in developing an analytic understanding concerning religion in a deeper level. It was noted that establishment of social networks is imperative in creating meaning in new systems (Dalacoura, 2006). Those implications are imperative in creating an identity of a person in the society. In this regard, symbolic interactionists regard religion as a symbol that gives meaning to a system that is owned by people. Such people are, therefore, likely to take roles that are accepted in that group. It can, therefore, be considered that the theory of symbolic interactionism and terrorism creates a sociological relationship between religion and terrorism. Terrorists who take religion as their symbolic group will explore their goals in the name of religion (Mohammed, 2004). In that notion, people in different countries are likely to engage in different symbolic groupings that can have an adverse implication in institutional relations. It should be pointed out that democratic peace theory implies that democracies are hesitant to engage in armed conflict with others. In this regard, democracy can also be considered to be a major factor towards social groupings that imply culpability of war (Maha, 2013). A deeper investigation, is, therefore, imperative in establishing relationships on the basis of various theoretical foundations.
1.5 Significance of the Study
International relations are an imperative concept that must be examined to ensure global peace which is an international goal. In this regard, the research paper seeks to offer solutions towards an important concept of international relations. It is important to examine how Muslim Brotherhood came to be, how it became discredited and the implications it has regarding a resultant failure in the Arab countries. It has been suggested that the failure has both domestic and international implications (Monier & Ranko, 2016). Although various experts have viewed the Brotherhood as a moderate Islamic organization, the banning in Egypt had a significant political influence that would have implications for societal functions. This group has a massive influence on Egyptian politics and, therefore, organizational development. Therefore, this research offers insights regarding the connection of its functions and whether better actions ought to be taken to combat terrorism. Researchers have also deeply sought to investigate various policy-related questions regarding terrorism. Some have sought to extol the values of democracy in combating terrorism. Others have argued that the vulnerabilities of democracy have made terrorism activities easier (Saiya, 2015). However, no conclusive finding has been established to this far. Findings of this study will, therefore, offer crucial information that can aid policy-making geared towards better governance and combating terrorism.
Islamic religion across the globe has been widely alleged as one of the gravest architects of religious violence and terrorism. Researchers have opined that Muslims continue to push their communities towards medieval practices thereby perpetrating backwardness of the community. Despite the allegations and notions by researchers, scholarly evidence has failed to be conclusive regarding the relationship of religion, democratic practices, and terrorism. All forms of social conflicts, as well as political wrangles, must, therefore, be considered in examining the global issues regarding peace. Following the case of Brotherhood and Egypt, it will be more plausible to establish a connection regarding the role of religion in terrorism. Also, it will enable an exploration of governance regarding democratic principles and their role in terrorism. Considering that the main purpose of this research is to establish the relationship between religion, democracy, and terrorism, the findings will, therefore, be imperative in decision making. Further details regarding theoretical applications will also be explored in the subsequent chapters.
Aktan, H., 2004. An Islamic perspective: Terror and suicide attacks. In Ergun Capan (Ed.), Acts of terror and suicide attacks in the light of the Qur’an and the Sunna. (pp. 27-40). New Jersey, USA: Light Publication.
Aziz, S., 2017. With democratization comes more religious freedom and less terrorism. Religious Freedom Institute, 1-3.
Cinoglu, H., 2010. Sociological understanding of the relationship between terrorism and religion. International Journal of Human Sciences, 7(2): p.200-209.
Crane, M., 2005. Does the Muslim Brotherhood have ties with terrorism? Council on Foreign Relations, p.1-2.
Dalacoura, K., 2006. Islamic terrorism and the Middle East democratic deficit: Political, repression and the causes of extremism. Democratization, 13(3): p.508-525.
El-Sherif, A., 2014. The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood’s Failures. Endowment for International Peace, p.1-28.
Hughes, B., 2017. The Islamic enlightenment by Christopher de Bellaigue. The Guardian, 1-2.
Kingsley, O., 2010. Religion and Terrorism: A socio-historical reconsideration. Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 2(2): p.550-576.
Maha, A., 2013. In Praise of Organization: Egypt between Activism and Revolution. Development and Change, 44(3): p.569–585.
Mohammed, A., 2004. Political Islam: Image and Reality. World Policy Journal, 21(3): p.1-14.
Monier, E., and Ranko, A., 2016. The fall of the Muslim Brotherhood: Implications for Egypt. Middle East Policy Council, 20(4): p.1-4.
Saiya, N., 2015. Religion, Democracy and Terrorism. Perspectives on Terrorism, 9(6): p.1-8.