Assessment item 2 Report on Primary Health Care in Practice Value: 45% Due date: 15-May-2018 Length: 1600 words Task Introduction In response to the Declaration of Alma Ata and the Ottawa Charter, the Australian Government has identified National Health Priority Areas, of which there are nine. These have been determined after the identification of diseases and conditions that were of increased prevalence and cost. The priority areas are addressed through collaboration between the top levels of government, health departments, communities, and even including the consumers. Through the development of strategies to reduce the incidence of the diseases and conditions, it is anticipated there would be improved health outcomes and financial savings. It is important for nurses to be aware of these areas of priority and the strategies for improving outcomes, as nurses have a significant role in the screening, assessment and education of patients. Assessment Task For this assessment task you are required to write a report on a patient whose condition fits a NHP. From the scenarios below, identify the patient from the town you investigated in your first assessment task, and create your report by utilising the information already identified, along with the additional details below.( In my first assignment I had chosen Hillston NSW. Looks like I have to take the scenario 1 with Mary …. In Hillston. Based on the following template, your report will include: • Introduction – National Health Priority conditions (150 words) Introduce your report by explaining the National Health Priority (NHP) against the chosen scenario. Provide brief information about the incidence of the condition, identify the Primary Health Care and Social Determinants of Health (as identified in assessment task 1) that relate to this scenario and explain how they impact on this person. • Section 1: Screening and assessment of a National Health Priority condition (500 words) Explain the difference between screening and assessment. Identify one screening and one assessment tool which can be used to screen or assess the patient outlined in the case study you have chosen. Explain why these tools of screening and assessmemt are useful for this NHP. Identify how the findings of the tool might be interpreted and used. • Section 2: Planning care in the primary health care setting (750 words) Utilising the relevant National Health Priority document referred to in the tutorial sessions, identify at least three health education strategies which would be useful for your case study and briefly describe of how you could tailor them to meet the needs of people from culturally diverse groups. • Conclusion (200) Conclude your report by explaining how primary health care can assist people to achieve better health outcomes. • Appendix: (not included in word count) Include the screening and assessment tool you have identified for your patient. This may be a scanned copy of the document, a web link or a list of the information the tool requires you to gather. Scenario 1 : Mary is a 72 year old lady who lives with her husband of 53 years, David, 79, in Hillston, where they have lived all their married life. David is a retired business man and Mary supported him in the business but has not been employed outside the home since the birth of her first child 51 years ago. They have four children who all live away. Mary identifies as being of a member of the Wiradjuri Nation. Mary has presented at her doctor today with high blood pressure, and fits within the National Health Priority Area of Cardiovascular Disease. Mary has no history of smoking, drinks alcohol socially, and is challenged with exercise due to ongoing back pain. Mary informs you her son has been quite unwell and is being tested for cancer and she is unable to visit him, due to her husband recovering from a recent Total Knee Replacement and needing her to care for him. Scenario 2 : Derek is a 56 year old farmer who lives with his wife, Fiona, 52, on a property 20km north west of Tullamore. They have three adult children, the eldest son works on the farm with them, and the two daughters have moved away. All children have married with young families of their own. Derek’s great grandfather emigrated from Lebanon with his wife in the late 1800’s and settled in the Tullamore district. Derek has been complaining of continuous back pain and knee pain. His weight is 106kg, and his height 165cm, giving him a BMI of 36.7. He fits into the National Health Priority area of Obesity. Medications include Coversyl and Crestor. Derek has a 35 pk/yr history of smoking, cessation occurred 4 years ago when diagnosed with Hypertension. He enjoys a beer at the pub several evenings a week, reporting an average intake of 3 full strength schooners on 5 days a week. He maintains his physical activity with farm work, working a combination of sheep and crops on the property. Scenario 3 : Jafari is an 18 year old boy who has recently moved to Griffith. His family is from Hay, where he has lived for 11 years. He completed year 12 last year and has relocated to Griffith for employment opportunities, while he decides on his future career path. Jafari’s parents emigrated from Zimbabwe when he was 6 years old and are employed by the Hay Shire Council. Jafari has presented to the local hospital after experiencing a frightening episode where he was unable to catch his breath, felt shaky and sweaty and had a sense that something terrible was about to happen. He has been diagnosed with depression and anxiety and fits the National Health Priority Area of Mental Health. There are no current prescribed medications. Jafari says he is struggling to find a job and his finances are difficult. He is missing his family and the house he is living in with several other young people is noisy and very busy. He admits to difficulty sleeping and has been drinking increased amounts of alcohol to try to fit in with his friends and also thought it may help him sleep. He denies smoking or recreational drug use. He found out today he had been unsuccessful in another job application and feels like he has no hope of securing work. You are encouraged to utilise the resources provided in the tutorial that discussed the specific National Health Priority, along with your texts to address the criteria. Rationale As a nurse you will need to be able to assess, plan, implement and document primary health care. In this assessment you will apply these skills in a particular scenario. This assessment item relates to the following learning outcomes: 2. Be able to examine the philosophy and principles of primary health care in relation to social determinants of health, and their relevance to Indigenous Australian communities and vulnerable Australian population groups. 3. Be able to plan client care based on the principles of primary health care. 5. Be able to document and interpret assessment findings pertaining to individuals using health screening and assessment tools. 6. Be able to differentiate between health promotion and health education, and identify strategies used to deliver health messages to different population groups (health literacy). Marking Criteria Provides an explanation of the National Health Priority relevant to the case scenario and the connection to Primary Health Care and Social Determinants of Health Detailed and comprehensive explanation of correct NHP relevant to the scenario and explicitly connects the NHP to the Principles of Primary Health Care and Social Determinants of Health evident in scenario Explains in detail the correct NHP relevant to the scenario and attempts to draw connections to the Principles of Primary Health Care and Social Determinants of Health Identifies correct NHP in the relevant scenario and provides detailed and comprehensive explanation of NHP. Limited connection to the Principles of Primary Health Care and Social Determinants of Health Identifies correct NHP in the relevant scenario and provides brief explanation of NHP. Briefly refers to the Principles of Primary Health and Social Determinants of Health. Identifies national Health priority of relevant case scenario but does not provide an explanation, or provides explanation for NHP not relevant to case scenario. /10 Screening and Assessment tool of a National Health Priority condition Explains the difference between screening & assessment. Identifies an appropriate tool & explains why it is useful, how results will be interpreted & used in this context. Relates the tool to social determinants of health related to the NHP & the person. Explains the difference between screening & assessment. Identifies an appropriate tool & explains why it is useful, how results will be interpreted & used. Relates the tool to social determinants of health related to the NHP. Defines the terms screening & assessment. Identifies an appropriate tool for the NHP. Explains why it is useful. Lists the Social Determinants of Health related to the NHP. Defines the terms screening & assessment. Identifies an appropriate tool for the NHP. States why it is useful. Lists some of the social determinants of health related to the NHP. Tool identified is not appropriate or relevant to the context, or is missing. Insufficient information regarding the tools in the appendix Identifies relevance of assessment findings Identifies how all of the information identified in the assessment tool is utilised, in reference to the patient, using correct terminology Identifies how most of the information identified in the assessment tool is utilised, in reference to the patient, using correct terminology with 1-2 minor errors. Identifies how some of the information identified in the assessment tool is utilised, with some reference to the patient, using correct terminology with 1-2 minor errors. Identifies how some of the information identified in the assessment tool is utilised, using correct terminology with multiple errors. Inadequate identification of how information from assessment tool is utilised. Identifies Health Education and Promotion Strategies Identifies a health education strategy that applies to the NHP and explains how it can assist in improving the health of the individual or community in relation to this scenario. Identifies a health promotion strategy that applies to the NHP and explains how it can assist in improving the health of the individual or community in relation to this scenario. Identifies a health education strategy that applies to the NHP and states how it applies to the client scenario. Identifies a health promotion strategy that applies to the NHP and states how it applies to the client scenario. Identifies a health education strategy that applies to the NHP. Identifies a health promotion strategy that applies to the NHP. Identifies a health education strategy that applies to the NHP. Identifies a health promotion strategy that applies to the NHP. Discussion of health promotion and education is incomplete. Use of Evidence and referencing The discussion is supported and related to more than 7 credible sources including research journal articles, policy documents and peer reviewed sources. APA in-text and end-of text referencing is error free and consistently applied. The discussion is supported and related to 5-7 credible sources including research journal articles, policy documents and peer reviewed sources. There are some minor errors in APA in-text and/or end-of text referencing. The report is supported by 4-5 credible sources, including research journal articles, policy documents and peer reviewed sources. There are noticeable errors in APA in-text and/or end-of text referencing. Minor editing and revision is needed. The report is supported by a minimum of 3 credible sources, including research journal articles, policy documents and peer reviewed sources. Frequent and noticeable errors in both in-text and/or end of text referencing but the major identifiable information is present. No credible references are included. There is overuse of large quotes. APA referencing is absent or with multiple errors that make it difficult to identify the source. Presentation and writing style Writing is cohesive, easy to understand, uses correct sentence structure, paragraphing, punctuation and spelling. There are no errors. Uses the report structure provided and adheres to all formatting guidelines provided. Writing is cohesive, easy to understand, uses correct sentence structure, paragraphing, punctuation and spelling with only 1-2 errors. Uses the report structure provided and adheres to all formatting guidelines provided with only 1-2 minor errors. Writing uses correct sentence structure, paragraphing, punctuation and spelling but has some errors that do not greatly impede readability. Uses the report structure provided and adheres to most formatting guidelines provided with only minor errors. Writing contains multiple errors in sentence structure, paragraphing, punctuation and spelling that make it difficult to understand in places. Uses the report structure provided. Formatting does not always adhere to guidelines, but is consistent and does not impede readability. )Writing has multiple errors in spelling, grammar, and poor word choice, sentence and paragraph construction that make the report very difficult to read. Formatting is inconsistent, does not follow guidelines, and impedes readability. Does not follow the recommended structure. Total /100 Presentation All items of assessment must be word processed and not handwritten. Leave 2 cm margins and double line space your work, so that there is ample space for markers to comment. In addition: Font must be 12pt, unless otherwise indicated. All pages must be numbered. Student name and number must be included in the header or footer of every page of every assignment. A title page must accompany your written assessment task and include the subject name and code, title of the assessment task, due date, lecturer’s name, student name and student number. Requirements Referencing Correct and consistent referencing is an important component of producing professional and credible academic work. Marks will be awarded for high quality referencing. Please refer to the following text for information on how to reference your paper: American Psychological Association (APA). (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington DC: APA. Information to support use of APA 6th edition style referencing is also available on the CSU website. https://scci.csu.edu.au/salusjournal/wp-content/uploads/sites/29/2013/05/APA-Referencing-Summary.pdf Students may also access CSU’s Academic Referencing Tool (ART) which provides detailed referencing examples for the referencing style – APA 6. This resource can be accessed at https://apps.csu.edu.au/reftool/apa-6 TURNITIN In the School of Nursing, Midwifery and Indigenous Health, all written assessments are processed through TURNITIN by the academic post submission. TURNITIN is a plagiarism checking service which checks the assessment for unoriginal content and improper citation. For students, TURNITIN has a pre-emptive education function which students may use to check their own work prior to submission. Students are encouraged to use TURNITIN to support them in their learning.
Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell.
In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.
God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.
Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.
To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.
Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.
Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies, 4(8), 487.
Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.