Critical Appraisal of a Quantitative Research Study
Instructions: Critically review the research study assigned to you by your instructor. Appraise each of the criteria listed below and determine if the study meets these criteria (yes) or not (no). For each rating, provide an appropriate comment. For example, if the authors of the study state the purpose of the study, copy and paste (or type) the statement of purpose. If not, please suggest what you think was the purpose of the study. Do this for each of the criteria. Scoring: Each item has a value of 1.
Appraisal Criteria
Title (it is better judged after reading article) Yes No Comments
1 Does it describe the problem of the study?
2 Does it identify the population?
3 Does it identify the methodology?
Abstract Yes No
4 Does it describe the main features of the study such as aim/objective, method, results, and conclusion? If not, what is missing?
Key Words (usually 5 -6) Yes No
5 Do they capture the main topics of the research? Explain in the comment
Introduction Yes No
6 Is the description of concept, phenomenon, key terms clear?
7 Does it give background information to the study to orientate the reader to the problem?
8 Does it include a statement of purpose or aims of the study?
Research Problem Statement Yes No
9 Is the problem clearly and concisely stated?
10 Is the relationship between the identified problem and previous research clearly described?
Step 2. Literature Review
Yes No
11 Does the literature review provide information about what is known on the subject? If yes, briefly describe.
12 Are gaps in knowledge about the research problem identified? If yes, what are the gaps?
Step 3. Theoretical or Conceptual Framework Yes No
13 Is there a stated theoretical of conceptual framework? If yes, what is it?
14 Is the theoretical or conceptual framework linked with the problem? If yes, how?
Step 4. Research Variables
Yes No
15 Are the independent and dependent variables operationally defined? If yes, list the operational definition of the study concepts.
Step 5. Hypotheses/Research Questions
Yes No
16 Are the hypotheses/research questions or objectives clearly and specifically mentioned? If yes, what are they?
Step 6. Sampling
Yes No
17 Do the authors explain that the study sample was representative of the defined population?
18 Is the sampling method described? If yes, what is it?
19 Are the inclusion and the exclusion criteria for selecting the sample clearly identified? If yes, what are they?
Step 7. Research Design
Yes No
20 Is the research design described? If yes, what is it?
21 Is there a description of the study setting? If yes, what is it?
Step 8. Data Collection Methods
Yes No
22 Is the data collection method(s) described? If yes, what are they?
23 Are the data collection (or measurement) instruments identified? If yes, what are they?
24 Are the measurement tools valid and reliable? If yes, what are they?
Step 9. Data Analysis
Yes No
25 How the data was analyzed is described. If yes, what is it?
26 Is the level of significance set for the study? If yes, what is it?
Results Yes No
27 Is the sample described clearly? If yes, what is it?
28 Do the results data respond to the research questions and/or hypothesis? If yes, how?
29 If tables or figures are used, do they supplement the text (that is, the text does not repeat everything in the table).
Discussion of the Findings Yes No
30 Are the interpretations based on the data obtained? If yes, why do think they do?
31 Are the findings discussed in relation to previous research and to the conceptual/theoretical framework? If yes, provide an example.
32 If there was a hypothesis, do the authors link the results to the research question/hypothesis? No comment needed.
Strengths & Limitations Yes No
33 Do the authors identify strengths? If yes, what are they?
34 Do the authors identify limitations? If yes, what are they?
Conclusions, implications, and recommendations
Yes No
35 Are conclusions directly related to the results presented? If yes, no comment needed. If not, why?
36 Are there implications for clinical practice identified? If yes, what are they? If not, what would you suggest?
37 Are any implications for policy identified? If yes, what are they? If not, what would you suggest?
38 Are recommendations for future research stated or implied? If yes, what are they? If not, what would you suggest as possible future studies?
Global Issues
Yes No
39 Despite any identified limitations, do the study findings appear to be valid – do you have confidence in the truth value of the results? That is, would you recommend that the findings be implemented in clinical practice? If yes, why do you think so?
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