Plastic remains in the oceans have recently attracted attention and are perceived as a serious problem. You are asked to write a brief scientific assessment for the “Scientific Association for the Promotion of Rational Environmental Policy” on what measures at European level could most effectively limit further increase in pollution of the Mediterranean Sea. Please base your work on an appropriate number of scientific sources.
In this essay I will be analysing Edward Lear’s poem ‘The Owl and the Pussy-Cat’ (Appendix 1), first providing a technical stylistic analysis concentrating on sound patterning, secondly locating its place in the history of poetry for children, and thirdly how the poem envisages childhood. Written in December 1867 for the daughter of a close friend of Lear, it was first published in an anthology by Lear entitled Nonsense Songs, Stories, Botany, and Alphabets (1871). Since then it has been published, illustrated, translated, and set to music many times. In 2001 it was voted Britain’s favourite poem. Lear uses simple, but creative language to tell the enchanting story of the voyaging sweethearts; the incongruous bird and cat. Comprising three stanzas, each eleven lines long, it consists of twin ballad quatrains and a three-line refrain, composed in a distinctive iambic metre. The rhyme scheme is ‘abcbdefe’ alternating between four and three stressed syllables per line, followed by the refrain ‘eee’ consisting of two lines with just one stressed syllable, and a final line with three. This uniform rhyme scheme not only gives the poem musical structure, but also coheres the very different parts of the story. The rhythmic parallelism of the refrains, in which all three lines end with the same stressed word, is a strict pattern in itself and foregrounds this part of the poem as it takes on an incantatory feel. Although the refrains are not the dominant structure of the poem, they do add musical reinforcement. The regular metrical pattern is what gives the poem its rising rhythm (anapests) and sing song form and there is little to disrupt the flow of the rhythm, or the story. The aim then is simplicity and repetition; indeed the first instance of repetition occurs in the opening line, which features the poem’s title words thereby reaffirming the focus of the poem. But in the first stanza, the most noticeable sound pattern is the concentration of /p/ sounds; a phonological parallelism that extends across the text with the words ‘Pussy’, ‘pea’, ‘plenty‘ and ‘pound’ as well as occurring in ‘wrapped’ and ‘up’. The recurrence of this plosive consonant emulates the plucking of guitar strings, which not only enhances the rhythm but also the visual effect of the serenading owl. While the plosive /p/ in ‘Pussy’ paired with the /b/ in ‘beautiful’ is not quite alliterative, it is sonorous and seductive of music, reflecting the depth and passion of the owl’s endearments. Note, too, that Lear also uses punctuation to emphasize meaning; the exclamation marks at the end of lines ten and eleven denote an expression of the owl’s feelings suggesting that the relationship is indeed more than just friendship. In addition to repetition and alliteration, Lear employs strong full rhymes to reinforce>GET ANSWER