“Scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National

What is the causal claim at issue?

“Scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National

Laboratory in California report that they have isolated and cloned two human genes that control and repair defective and damaged cells. A biophysicist and a biologist at the laboratory inserted the cloned normal genes from human DNA into the genetically defective cells of Chinese hamsters. The human repair genes took over the cellular machinery of the hamsters and corrected their defects, the scientists said. Approximately two-thirds of the cells that received the cloned genes returned to normal, while only about one-tenth of one percent of similar, untreated cells achieved a normal condition. It is hoped that the research will eventually produce an effective treatment for radiation-damaged tissue in humans, according to a spokesman for the laboratory.”

The figures are hypothetical, invented to illustrate studies at Lawrence Livermore laboratores, as reported by David Perlman in the San Francisco Chronicle. [M&P]

A. Certain cloned human genes can repair damaged cells in hamsters.

B. Scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California report that they have isolated and cloned two human genes.

C. Approximately two-thirds of the cells that received the cloned genes returned to normal, while only about one-tenth of one percent of similar, untreated cells achieved a normal condition.

D. A biophysicist and a biologist at the laboratory inserted the cloned normal genes from human DNA into the genetically defective cells of Chinese hamsters.

Sample Solution

ACED ESSAYS