After discussing the cyber threat and whether or not it is exaggerated, you head to work and have candid discussions with your leadership about security. Although no one agrees on the level of exaggeration in the media, the consensus is that the threat exists and your organization could do a much better job at securing its enterprise network.
Your Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) asks you to review the seven domains of the typical IT infrastructure, and describe how you will:
Reduce the attack surface with what hardening steps and network security management best practices;
Ensure secure authentication, authorization, and accounting;
Prevent or respond to intrusions.
Hardening is the process of securing a system by reducing its surface of vulnerability: http://www.ciozone.com/index.php/Security/System-Hardening-in-7-Steps.html
ince Parties are given discretion as to how to deal with national implementation of CITES, non-compliance procedures are also left to Member States. Article VIII of CITES requires Parties to have a penalising system for national legislative breaches. The main concern with this procedure is that it creates inconsistency across countries. This, in turn, causes the issue of certain countries’ mechanisms not being sufficiently punitive, and therefore not deterring smuggling and poaching. The discrepancy is also caused by the gaps in practical ability to implement domestic laws. At the 17th CoP, the Parties formally acknowledged the vast effects of corruption on hindering enforcement. The lack of a universal sanctioning system fails to address this problem. Nonetheless, adopting a universal non-compliance system would be difficult to implement and monitor, therefore CITES has had to rely on Parties to positively comply with the given requirements. The Control of Trade in Endangered Species (Enforcement) Regulations 1997 has introduced European Union compliance regulations. For instance, conviction of falsifying a permit of trade results in a fine and/or imprisonment. This illustrates the gravity of the offence at an EU law level. This legislation, therefore, is translated into the domestic law of all EU Member States. The application of the UK Control of Trade in Endangered Species Regulation is seen in the case of Yip v Revenue and Customs Commissioners. The defendant tried re-exporting rhinoceros horns from the UK to Australia, but they were seized by the Border Agency because they failed to comply with their export certificates. It was held that confiscating the items was reasonable and proportionate, since Mr Yip had given inconsistent accounts of what he was going to do with them. This decision depicts the collaboration between Members States of CITES in regulating and stopping illegal trade. The fact that trade of listed species is being discovered demonstrates that domestic legislation for non-compliance is being effective in improving the enforcement of CITES. 5. Case Study on Elephants: In order to fully assess the successfulness of CITES, I will use the case study of elephants to show the practical achievements and faults. CITES is currently the leading international convention for governing elephants, which automatically places great responsibility on its ability to protect the species. The need to safeguard elephants is continuously increasing, as the amount of poaching raises due to increased demands for ivory. Ivory is a large and lucrative trade market, which illustrates the urgent requirement of international cooperation to address the situation.>GET ANSWER