In the first paragraph, write a brief summary about what the article is about.
In the second paragraph, transition to discussing the following: Is it ethical, legal, fair to other students, or moral for some students to pay the Shadow Scholar to do their papers or take their tests? Also, is it ethical, legal, fair, or moral for the Shadow Scholar to sell his services to students and do their papers or take their tests? Why do some students get others to do their schoolwork for free or pay? Are friends or parents who do papers or take online tests for friends or relatives complicit? What solutions do you propose for cheating online?
Finally, the formal operations stage links to KS3 and consists of children working independently and building on existing knowledge. Piaget’s theory allows the child to learn actively and gain knowledge from any mistakes that they make. However, I feel that Piaget’s methods are underestimated and may have a huge impact on learning. When learning the core subjects mainly Literacy and Mathematics, Piaget’s theory ignored the social aspects of the child which unvalued the importance knowledge and culture which led to underestimating the ability of the children. His is widely used in a number of schools, however I strongly feel that the teaching should cover a wider range including the external factors and the environment especially the social and emotional aspects of learning (Isaacs, 1929). On the other hand Vygotsky believed that a child’s learning cannot be separated from its social context. An example of the importance social context has is Piaget’s’ three mountain experiment’. Piaget concluded that children are unable to see things from another person’s perspective (Schaffer, 2004, p.174). In the experiment he used 3 mountains of different sizes and children aged from four to twelve years old. The children sat on one side of the mountain and a doll was placed on the other side. The children were then shown photographs of the mountains from different positions and were asked to choose a photograph the doll can see from her position. Piaget found that children under seven years of age could not see things from another person’s perspective therefore were egocentric (Wood, 1998, p. 66). However the appropriateness of the ‘three mountain experiment’ was questioned. Borke states that children performed poorly due to unfamiliarity and not motivating enough for the children to complete successfully (Smith et al. 1998). When the experiment was repeated by Hughes (Donaldson, 1987, p.137) using a policeman and a doll. The children were asked where the doll should hide so the policeman does not find her; he found that nearly ninety nice percent of children aged five were correct. He concluded that if the child is given a familiar situation he/she will think objectively. Cognitive structures change through the following processes: adaptation, assimilation and accommodation. Adaptation is found in all biological organisms to adjust to the demands of the environment, assimilation involves the individual to incorporate new experiences into existing schemas and accommodation is where the individual modifies existing schemas to fit the new experiences (Schaffer, 2004, p.165). This relates to other learning theorists in terms of constructivist perspectives of learning including Jerome Bruner and Lev Vygotsky.>