Examine values of a variable over equally spaced intervals of time income figures monthly or yearly). Use times series analyses to discern patterns in the revenues and expenditures. Look for outliers and sudden shifts in data patterns and unusual observations or shifts. Analyze fiscal data over time is via Time Series Analysis. Time series analysis enables public administrators and policy analysts to examine values of a variable over equally spaced intervals of time (e.g., income figures monthly or yearly). Using times series analyses, administrators and analysts can discern patterns in the values that enable them to forecast future values based on historical and existing patterns. A time series plot allows an analyst to look for (1) outliers and sudden shifts in data patterns, (2) unusual observations or shifts, and (3) long-term increase or decrease in the data values. A trend plot also will show whether the data pattern is linear or nonlinear, as the time series plot.
The “non-mailability” clause of the Espionage Act was also invoked to silence free speech by individuals who used the mails to express their views about the war but the law disproportionately targeted socialists. The most notorious example was the arrest of Charles T. Schenk, the secretary of the Socialist Party, who had printed and distributed 15,000 leaflets calling for men who had been drafted to resist military service. “Wake Up America!” Shenck wrote, “Your Liberties are in Danger!” He then explained that the draft violated the 13th Amendment because it unlawfully forced men into “involuntary servitude.” Schenk was arrested on three counts: conspiracy to violate the Espionage Act, conspiracy to commit an offence against the United States and unlawfully using the mails for the transmission of matter that was considered “non-mailable” by Title XII, § 2 of the Act. Schenck’s attorney argued that “the right of free speech…gives the right to persuade another to violate a law, since, legally, it is actually the one who violates the law who should be punished.” But the court disagreed. Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes argued that the risks associated with the distribution of Schenck’s leaflets was comparable to falsely shouting “Fire!” in a crowded theater and therefore created a “clear and present danger.” Yet another politically-motivated application of the Espionage and Sedition Acts was the arrest and imprisonment of one of the founding members of the IWW and five-time candidate for president, Eugene V. Debs. In a speech in Canton, Ohio in June 1918 Debs argued that “If war is right let it be declared by the people. You who have your lives to lose ….have the right to decide the momentous issue of war or peace.” Two weeks later, Debs was arrested and sentenced to prison for violating the Espionage and Sedition Acts because, the court said, his speech was “calculated to promote insubordination” and obstruct the draft. Other non-socialist critics of the war like Jane Addams, who in May 1917 asked if the “United States owes too much to all the nations of the earth… to allow the women and children of any of them to starve,” Henry Ford, who had financed a diplomatic peace mission to Europe, University of Chicago Dean Robert M. Lovett and pacifist Reverend Jenkin Lloyd Jones were never arre>GET ANSWER