For each paragraph circle or underline key words and make notes about…
*What did you learn? What can you predict? What do you need to find out?
Think about topic, argument, genre, details (who? what? where? when?), etc.!
1. Cubism, developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, was a truly revolutionary
style of modern art…
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_______________________________They had many influences and in turn, made
a huge impact on the world.
2. In the four decades from 1870-1910, western society witnessed more technological
progress than in the previous four
centuries.______________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________This new
approach was called Cubism.
3. Picasso and Braque developed cubism around 1907 in Paris and their starting point
was a common interest in the paintings of Paul
Cézanne.__________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
________________
___________________________________________________________________
_________________________________It was this flat abstract approach that
appealed to the cubists.
4. The cubists also found inspiration in the traditional art of other cultures, especially
African art.
2
___________________________________________________________________
_____
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________…paintin
gs and prints were influenced by the native culture of Tahiti and the Marquesas
Islands where he spent his final years.
5. The cubists saw that in traditional European art, a subject was drawn from a single
position, and the result was frozen, like a photo, but the cubists…
_____________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
________________________Cubism was, therefore, an attempt at a more realistic
way of painting what we see.
6. Cubism had two distinct phases.
________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________Lines, colours, patterns and textures switched
from geometric to freehand, dark to light.
7. Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque conceived and developed cubism but other
notable artists of the time also adopted the style,…
________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________Its impact on the
language of art has prevailed to this day.

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.

 

References

Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.