Evaluate the media article headline only (5 points)
a. Indicate if the claim in this headline is frequency, association, or cause. What words in the headline indicate that type of claim?
b. For the headline’s claim, state the variable (or variables) at the conceptual level.
c. State each variable at the operational level (speculate about how it might be operationalized).
d. What kind of study would be needed to support this kind of claim?
Evaluate the original research article (attach pdf as well) (15 points)
a. What is the source? Is the journal peer-reviewed?
b. In your own words, what is the major purpose of the study as described in the abstract?
c. Briefly summarize the introduction (one to three paragraphs). Pay specific attention to the topics introduced, previous research cited, and any theories discussed. Were adequate reference citations and background research provided to support the ideas, theories, and factual information described?
d. Evaluate the strengths and limitations of the study methods and results across the four validities: construct validity, statistical validity, internal (if causal/experimental research), and external validity (one paragraph per validity). See Table 3.5 on page 73 for guiding questions.
Evaluate the content of the media article (5 points)
a. What, if anything, was accurately reported about the research study in the media article?
b. What, if anything, was inaccurately reported about the research study?
c. What conclusions are drawn in the media article, and how do they differ from the conclusions discussed in the original research article?
d. What are some possible implications or effects on a person who reads the media article only? Consider specific implications about the claims as well as broad implications on the reader as a consumer of science.
Research article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30359072
speakers which can eventually cause Welsh speakers to switch to using the more universal language, English. As a result of this, the overall aftermath of social media on the maintenance of the Welsh language remains problematic to determine due to the combination of high costs and benefits. On the other hand, research suggests that the language policy and planning efforts for the Welsh language is currently one of the most effective models of how to reverse and halt language shift. Language planning in the form of status planning has successfully revitalized Welsh in many ways; such as making Welsh a compulsory subject in the National Curriculum and encouraging bilingual education at both primary and secondary level which made it easier for children to acquire and maintain their knowledge of Welsh alongside English. This attempt at status planning aided the removal of stigma towards the Welsh language as learning Welsh alongside other subjects made children take Welsh more seriously. Efforts of language planning also aided Welsh language schemes, in particular public organisations such as the right of the public to interact with the organisation in Welsh giving a purpose to the language. As a result of this people felt there was a purpose to Welsh which was absent before However, The Welsh Language board also state how 40% of children who complete primary school education as first language Welsh speakers generally commence their secondary education as second language Welsh speakers, taking their curriculum through the medium of English as often the standard of Welsh taught in primary schools fails to be maintained to the same level in secondary school education . This may depict how in defiance of the efforts to revitalise Welsh it is a considerable challenge and unrealistic to expect a drastic Welsh language revival. As a lingua franca, English appears to be a more desired language, used in the media, academics, films etc. explaining the eagerness of Welsh speakers to shift to English. Furthermore, The Welsh Language Board has also contrived a series of campaigns targeting parents including an information pack providing answers to the questions raised by future parents discussing topics such as the benefits of early bilingualism. The language pack “Bringing up Bilingual Children” allows health professionals to discuss any questions raised. The pilot study was conducted in South Wales in 1998 which illustrated that 78% of parents remembered receiving the pack and 33% had kept the documents for future reference. Some argue that such projects make crucial interventions but there are doubts as to whether they actually contribute to language shift. Despite this, this effort of Prestige planning clearly creates a positive attitude towards Welsh. In further accordance to The Welsh Language board, the corpus planning of Welsh centres around two areas. Firstly, the need for linguistic standardisation which is met by producing specialised dictionaries which are free to access on the internet from a Welsh Language Board server. Secondly, a popular form of welsh is needed which has been addressed, so far as forms and related material are concerned by Cymraeg Clir, which seeks to do for written Welsh what the Plain English Campaign does for English. In order for Welsh to become a more certified language Welsh must continue to adapt, spread new terminology and continue to gain acceptance for forms of >