How one’s social class relates to poverty. Specially how social class and poverty plays a role in Western North Carolina.
them from the rest of the Canadian workforce. The research also indicates, however, that this difference tends to fade over time, with longer settled migrants reflecting general labour force participation rates to a greater degree (Reitz, Phan, & Banerjee, 2015). This suggests that these groups are assimilating with regards to Canadian norms of work and gender. A similar finding has been observed in education. Immigrants who come to Canada as children or are second generation have more years of schooling and higher high school completion rates when compared with third-plus generation Canadians (Boyd, 2002). This is in contrast to the United States, where segmented assimilation creates an underclass characterized by reduced levels of educational attainment (Boyd, 2002). These results suggest that migrants to Canada are assimilating to a considerable degree when it comes to work and education, adopting the practices and values at the heart of Canadian socioeconomic life. One view of the Canadian cultural mosaic, then, is that migrants assimilate into mainstream culture related to shared social and economic values while retaining distinctive religious beliefs and cultural practices. This view of multiculturalism has been supported by research into how religious or ethnic minorities are perceived by other Canadians. One study of Quebec Francophones found that respondents did not view an Arab Muslim woman less favourably when she was presented to them in either Western clothing or traditional Muslim clothing such as the niqab or hijab (El-Geledi & Bourhis, 2012). This shows that Canadian society adapts itself to new concepts of multiculturalism in response to immigration. While this process takes time and may entail opposition and bigotry along the way, it does suggest that immigrant groups tend to assimilate and integrate into Canadian society. The distinction between cultural mosaic and melting pot can be related to sociological concepts of integration and assimilation. Research into the Canadian immigrant experience suggests that acculturation is more complex than suggested by this binary. Immigrants to Canada integrate into Canadian society in some ways and assimilate in others. Gender Equality Gender equality and the status of women are defining issues of Canadian values and self-conception. This is a country that currently has a self-described feminist Prime Minister and where there is considerable support for feminist social policies and symbolic acts of feminism. Immigrant groups in Canada often come from countries that do not share these values of gender equality and may retain their own values in Canada. But immigrants are not a monolithic group, and these attitudes vary across culture, place, and time. Gender equality and the status of women are significant indicators of public perceptions of difference though such differences are not always reflected in the evidence. There is a public perception that immigrant groups have different views about the status of women and the importance of gender equality than those held by the majority of Canadians. In surveys conducted in Western countries, majorities of respondents have indicated a belief that Muslims hold different views from their own with regards to respect for women (Reitz, Phan, & Banerjee, 2015). Gender is one way that immigrant groups can be perceived as a “symbolic threat” to a host community (Harell et al, 2012, p. 504). Immigrants who are ethnically or religiously different from the host community are often perceived as threatening to the norms and values of that community. The Muslim practice of veiling women, for example, has been held up by some as contrary to the feminist values of countries like Canada. Since the September 11th terrorist attacks, as many as 45 percent of Canadians have endorsed the view that Islam encourages violence and this perception of difference has been “aggravated by the wearing of the Islamic veil in public spaces such as the street, in commerce and within educational and health institutions of western receiving societies” (El-Geledi & Bourhis, 2012, p. 694). Veils such as the hijab or the niqab are symbolically associated with terrorism in the public perception because they allegedly reflect a fundamental difference in views about the role of women in society. But while such views exist, the evidence indicates that most Canadians do not view immigrant groups as this kind of symbolic threat to gender equality. Most Canadians support diversity in migration and are willing to tolerate divergent cultural beliefs and practices (Soroka & Roberton, 2010). A study of how Quebec Francophones responded to a woman wearing a hijab or niqab found that there was not a significantly different conception of symbolic threat when compared with her in Western clothing (El-Geledi & Bourhis, 2012). This suggests that in Canada the public perception that immigrant groups have different attitudes about gender equality does not translate into reactions against divers>GET ANSWER