In the United States, awareness is increasing that medical care alone cannot adequately improve health overall or reduce health disparities without also addressing where and how people live. A critical mass of relevant knowledge has accumulated by documenting associations, exploring pathways and biological mechanisms, and providing a previously unavailable scientific foundation for appreciating the role of social factors in health. At the same time, the movement insists that our differences should not have economic, social, or political consequences. All individuals are entitled to the same access to resources and opportunities regardless of their differences.
Read the article: The Social Determinants of Health: Coming of Age.
On the basis of your reading, create a report, answering the following:
Define, understand, and discuss some of the major risk factors for health and health care disparities and why they are associated with poorer outcomes among some multicultural populations.
Discuss how social advantage and health advantage are transmitted across lifetimes and generations.
Describe the implications for health care policy in addressing health.
Discuss at least of two of the knowledge gaps presented in the reading. How would you reduce these challenges?
Porter (1980) outlines a competitive advantage as a condition by which organisations obtain improved sales, market share and profitability whilst outperforming competitors. Subsequently, as a measure of organisational performance, a competitive advantage can be utilised to highlight a company’s competitive positioning, with emphasis to how the organisation is perceived by stakeholders including consumers (Porter, 1980). In the case of corporate crises, research indicates that negative publicity can threaten the image of an organisation relative to social responsibility across three-stages: including prior to a crisis event, in response to a crisis event and across responsibility for the event on overall consumer regard for the organisation (Dean, 2004). Previously, Alton Towers can be observed as having a generally favourable perception in consumer practice (Mintel, 2014), further emphasised by a reported sales revenue of £331million in 2014; suggesting that prior to the Smiler incident, the organisation was trusted and thus performed well (FT, 2015). Notably, in 2014, 88% of adults who visited a theme park were returning visitors, highlighting the critical importance of theme park operators to maintain a strong and valuable relationship with its customers (Mintel, 2014). It can be argued that Alton Towers’ immediate response to the event served as an essential move strategically, relative to crisis management and diminishing organisational performance harm (Klein & Dawar, 2004). In example, a PR Week (2015) focus piece, praised the sensitive approach undertaken whereby CEO Nick Varney quickly issued a heartfelt statement, apologised and immediately closed the park down for investigation. Crisis management theories further emphasise the favourability of a valuable pre-crisis reputation, suggesting that prior reputations can create a halo effect which serve as a protective layer for reputational damage and organisational performance in event of crises (Coombs & Holladay, 2006). As such, it can be reasonably determined that Merlin Entertainments took the appropriate steps to mitigate brand harm and organisational performance damage; measurable by brand equity (Porter, 1980; Dawar & Pillutla, 2000). However, within practice, Alton Towers’ performance and brand reputation is tangibly impacted, relative to consistent sales decline and a 25% drop in visitors in 2016 (The Guardian, 2016b; BBC, 2016b). Furthermore, existing brand attitudes to the theme park continually deteriorate, with a YouGov (2018) study demonstrating brand positivity has continued to decline at a rate of 27% in 2018, three-years after the Smiler accident. Of those who were positive about the Alton Towers brand, YouGov (2018) identified a statistical correlation between the theme park and high-octane adrenaline events such as sky diving, hot-air ballooning and ice climbing. Subsequently, it can be perceived that the halo effect crises management approach taken by Alton Towers has clearly been unsuccessful in parts, with the brand increasingly analogous with less-safe high-octane events (Coombs & Holladay, 2006). Furthermore, organisational performance has additionally clearly been negatively impacted whereby in 2016, Merlin Entertainments reported its group profits were half the previous year’s takings, with visitor numbers and revenues at its other theme parks also affected (FT, 2016). It is further highly probable that alienation following the Smiler event is likely to continually impact organisational performance within core-target groups such as families with young children who are likely to have previous perceptions of the company being a safe and responsible organisation impacted (Mintel, 2014). In support, reputation transfer is proposed as a profitable extension strategy for organisational performance where organisations can leverage existing brand equity across new ventures (Muzellec & Lambkin, 2006). However, a clear disadvantage relates to holistic group performance decline via shares, sales and profits when one element of the business is affected (FT, 2016; Battersby, 2016). Brand Equity Debatably, the Smiler incident has played into an existing and progressive dialogue that rollercoasters are unsafe which in turn has impacted on sales, market share and subsequent profitability (The Telegraph, 2017). Reputation theory proposes that customer-based corporate reputation (CBR) stems from two constructs of being cognitive-based (knowledge impacts perception) and being affective-based (emotions impact on attitude) (Johnson & Grayson, 2005; Eberl & S>GET ANSWER