To what extent have specific historical events or persons shaped the national identity and the contemporary politics of France, Germany, and the UK? Identify security and socio-economic challenges confronting each country and consider whether responses to each have been successful. Challenges include Brexit, COVID, and the Migrant crises. The key terms provide other examples, but also discuss general economic, cultural, and security trends-how well each countryhas been doing.
is evident that the ‘Spanish Ulcer,’ as it was referred to by Napoleon, had the greatest impact on his downfall due to his underestimation of opposition throughout the Napoleonic wars, Historian David Chandler agrees when he writes that “Napoleon’s policy in Spain proved one of his greatest blunders” and that “Nothing turned out as intended. From the beginning, he entirely misjudged the problem with which he had to deal. He never appreciated how independent the Spanish people were of their government; he misjudged the extent of their pride, of the tenacity of their religious faith, of their loyalty to Ferdinand. He anticipated that they would accept the change of regime without demur; instead he soon found himself with a war of truly national proportions on his hands.” This argument has much validity to it as Napoleon later revealed whilst in exile; “The unfortunate war in Spain ruined me. All my reverses originated there. The Spanish war destroyed my reputation throughout Europe, increased my difficulties and provided the best possible training ground for English troops. I trained the English army myself, in the Peninsula.” In this source Napoleon has the luxury of hindsight and an abundance of time to consider his mistakes as he was in exile in St. Helena, this could suggest that now more than ever Napoleon has a clearer understanding of the mistakes he made and so his argument is likely to be more accurate and therefore more valid. Previously he had hoped that by abolishing the old regime whilst “bearing the words ‘Liberty and Emancipation from Superstition’” he would be “regarded as the liberator of Spain” which helps to illustrate the arrogance that he was famous for, at the time the French empire was nearing its peak and Napoleon was famed across Europe as the greatest military tactician of all time. By showcasing his arrogance it could help to illustrate how easy it would be for him to misunderstand the Spanish, their culture and their loyalties. Subsequently the Spaniards and the Portuguese would resist French occupation and according to Gates “The imperial forces in the Peninsular totalled a massive 325,000 men but only about one quarter of these could be spared for t>GET ANSWER